Chapter 2 Installing and Upgrading MySQL

Table of Contents

2.1 General Installation Guidance
2.1.1 Which MySQL Version and Distribution to Install
2.1.2 How to Get MySQL
2.1.3 Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG
2.1.4 Installation Layouts
2.1.5 Compiler-Specific Build Characteristics
2.2 Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries
2.3 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows
2.3.1 MySQL Installation Layout on Microsoft Windows
2.3.2 Choosing an Installation Package
2.3.3 MySQL Installer for Windows
2.3.4 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall ZIP Archive
2.3.5 Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation
2.3.6 Windows Postinstallation Procedures
2.4 Installing MySQL on macOS
2.4.1 General Notes on Installing MySQL on macOS
2.4.2 Installing MySQL on macOS Using Native Packages
2.4.3 Installing and Using the MySQL Launch Daemon
2.4.4 Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane
2.5 Installing MySQL on Linux
2.5.1 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL Yum Repository
2.5.2 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL APT Repository
2.5.3 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL SLES Repository
2.5.4 Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages from Oracle
2.5.5 Installing MySQL on Linux Using Debian Packages from Oracle
2.5.6 Deploying MySQL on Linux with Docker
2.5.7 Installing MySQL on Linux from the Native Software Repositories
2.5.8 Installing MySQL on Linux with Juju
2.5.9 Managing MySQL Server with systemd
2.6 Installing MySQL Using Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN)
2.7 Installing MySQL on Solaris
2.7.1 Installing MySQL on Solaris Using a Solaris PKG
2.8 Installing MySQL on FreeBSD
2.9 Installing MySQL from Source
2.9.1 Source Installation Methods
2.9.2 Source Installation Prerequisites
2.9.3 MySQL Layout for Source Installation
2.9.4 Installing MySQL Using a Standard Source Distribution
2.9.5 Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree
2.9.6 Configuring SSL Library Support
2.9.7 MySQL Source-Configuration Options
2.9.8 Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL
2.9.9 MySQL Configuration and Third-Party Tools
2.9.10 Generating MySQL Doxygen Documentation Content
2.10 Postinstallation Setup and Testing
2.10.1 Initializing the Data Directory
2.10.2 Starting the Server
2.10.3 Testing the Server
2.10.4 Securing the Initial MySQL Account
2.10.5 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically
2.11 Upgrading MySQL
2.11.1 Before You Begin
2.11.2 Upgrade Paths
2.11.3 What the MySQL Upgrade Process Upgrades
2.11.4 Changes in MySQL 8.0
2.11.5 Preparing Your Installation for Upgrade
2.11.6 Upgrading MySQL Binary or Package-based Installations on Unix/Linux
2.11.7 Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL Yum Repository
2.11.8 Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL APT Repository
2.11.9 Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL SLES Repository
2.11.10 Upgrading MySQL on Windows
2.11.11 Upgrading a Docker Installation of MySQL
2.11.12 Upgrade Troubleshooting
2.11.13 Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes
2.11.14 Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine
2.12 Downgrading MySQL
2.13 Perl Installation Notes
2.13.1 Installing Perl on Unix
2.13.2 Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows
2.13.3 Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface

This chapter describes how to obtain and install MySQL. A summary of the procedure follows and later sections provide the details. If you plan to upgrade an existing version of MySQL to a newer version rather than install MySQL for the first time, see Section 2.11, “Upgrading MySQL”, for information about upgrade procedures and about issues that you should consider before upgrading.

If you are interested in migrating to MySQL from another database system, see Section A.8, “MySQL 8.0 FAQ: Migration”, which contains answers to some common questions concerning migration issues.

Installation of MySQL generally follows the steps outlined here:

  1. Determine whether MySQL runs and is supported on your platform.

    Please note that not all platforms are equally suitable for running MySQL, and that not all platforms on which MySQL is known to run are officially supported by Oracle Corporation. For information about those platforms that are officially supported, see https://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html on the MySQL website.

  2. Choose which distribution to install.

    Several versions of MySQL are available, and most are available in several distribution formats. You can choose from pre-packaged distributions containing binary (precompiled) programs or source code. When in doubt, use a binary distribution. Oracle also provides access to the MySQL source code for those who want to see recent developments and test new code. To determine which version and type of distribution you should use, see Section 2.1.1, “Which MySQL Version and Distribution to Install”.

  3. Download the distribution that you want to install.

    For instructions, see Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”. To verify the integrity of the distribution, use the instructions in Section 2.1.3, “Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG”.

  4. Install the distribution.

    To install MySQL from a binary distribution, use the instructions in Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”.

    To install MySQL from a source distribution or from the current development source tree, use the instructions in Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source”.

  5. Perform any necessary postinstallation setup.

    After installing MySQL, see Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing” for information about making sure the MySQL server is working properly. Also refer to the information provided in Section 2.10.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Account”. This section describes how to secure the initial MySQL root user account, which has no password until you assign one. The section applies whether you install MySQL using a binary or source distribution.

  6. If you want to run the MySQL benchmark scripts, Perl support for MySQL must be available. See Section 2.13, “Perl Installation Notes”.

Instructions for installing MySQL on different platforms and environments is available on a platform by platform basis:

2.1 General Installation Guidance

The immediately following sections contain the information necessary to choose, download, and verify your distribution. The instructions in later sections of the chapter describe how to install the distribution that you choose. For binary distributions, see the instructions at Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries” or the corresponding section for your platform if available. To build MySQL from source, use the instructions in Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source”.

2.1.1 Which MySQL Version and Distribution to Install

MySQL is available on a number of operating systems and platforms. For information about those platforms that are officially supported, see https://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html on the MySQL website.

When preparing to install MySQL, decide which version and distribution format (binary or source) to use.

First, decide whether to install a development release or a General Availability (GA) release. Development releases have the newest features, but are not recommended for production use. GA releases, also called production or stable releases, are meant for production use. We recommend using the most recent GA release.

The naming scheme in MySQL 8.0 uses release names that consist of three numbers and an optional suffix (for example, mysql-8.0.1-dmr). The numbers within the release name are interpreted as follows:

  • The first number (8) is the major version number.

  • The second number (0) is the minor version number. Taken together, the major and minor numbers constitute the release series number. The series number describes the stable feature set.

  • The third number (1) is the version number within the release series. This is incremented for each new bugfix release. In most cases, the most recent version within a series is the best choice.

Release names can also include a suffix to indicate the stability level of the release. Releases within a series progress through a set of suffixes to indicate how the stability level improves. The possible suffixes are:

  • dmr indicates a development milestone release (DMR). MySQL development uses a milestone model, in which each milestone introduces a small subset of thoroughly tested features. From one milestone to the next, feature interfaces may change or features may even be removed, based on feedback provided by community members who try these earily releases. Features within milestone releases may be considered to be of pre-production quality.

  • rc indicates a Release Candidate (RC). Release candidates are believed to be stable, having passed all of MySQL's internal testing. New features may still be introduced in RC releases, but the focus shifts to fixing bugs to stabilize features introduced earlier within the series.

  • Absence of a suffix indicates a General Availability (GA) or Production release. GA releases are stable, having successfully passed through the earlier release stages, and are believed to be reliable, free of serious bugs, and suitable for use in production systems.

Development within a series begins with DMR releases, followed by RC releases, and finally reaches GA status releases.

After choosing which MySQL version to install, decide which distribution format to install for your operating system. For most use cases, a binary distribution is the right choice. Binary distributions are available in native format for many platforms, such as RPM packages for Linux or DMG packages for OS X. Distributions are also available in more generic formats such as Zip archives or compressed tar files. On Windows, you can use the MySQL Installer to install a binary distribution.

Under some circumstances, it may be preferable to install MySQL from a source distribution:

  • You want to install MySQL at some explicit location. The standard binary distributions are ready to run at any installation location, but you might require even more flexibility to place MySQL components where you want.

  • You want to configure mysqld with features that might not be included in the standard binary distributions. Here is a list of the most common extra options used to ensure feature availability:

    For additional information, see Section 2.9.7, “MySQL Source-Configuration Options”.

  • You want to configure mysqld without some features that are included in the standard binary distributions.

  • You want to read or modify the C and C++ code that makes up MySQL. For this purpose, obtain a source distribution.

  • Source distributions contain more tests and examples than binary distributions.

2.1.2 How to Get MySQL

Check our downloads page at https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/ for information about the current version of MySQL and for downloading instructions. For a complete up-to-date list of MySQL download mirror sites, see https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mirrors.html. You can also find information there about becoming a MySQL mirror site and how to report a bad or out-of-date mirror.

For RPM-based Linux platforms that use Yum as their package management system, MySQL can be installed using the MySQL Yum Repository. See Section 2.5.1, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL Yum Repository” for details.

For Debian-based Linux platforms, MySQL can be installed using the MySQL APT Repository. See Section 2.5.2, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL APT Repository” for details.

For SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES) platforms, MySQL can be installed using the MySQL SLES Repository. See Section 2.5.3, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL SLES Repository” for details.

To obtain the latest development source, see Section 2.9.5, “Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree”.

2.1.3 Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG

After downloading the MySQL package that suits your needs and before attempting to install it, make sure that it is intact and has not been tampered with. There are three means of integrity checking:

  • MD5 checksums

  • Cryptographic signatures using GnuPG, the GNU Privacy Guard

  • For RPM packages, the built-in RPM integrity verification mechanism

The following sections describe how to use these methods.

If you notice that the MD5 checksum or GPG signatures do not match, first try to download the respective package one more time, perhaps from another mirror site.

2.1.3.1 Verifying the MD5 Checksum

After you have downloaded a MySQL package, you should make sure that its MD5 checksum matches the one provided on the MySQL download pages. Each package has an individual checksum that you can verify against the package that you downloaded. The correct MD5 checksum is listed on the downloads page for each MySQL product, and you will compare it against the MD5 checksum of the file (product) that you download.

Each operating system and setup offers its own version of tools for checking the MD5 checksum. Typically the command is named md5sum, or it may be named md5, and some operating systems do not ship it at all. On Linux, it is part of the GNU Text Utilities package, which is available for a wide range of platforms. You can also download the source code from http://www.gnu.org/software/textutils/. If you have OpenSSL installed, you can use the command openssl md5 package_name instead. A Windows implementation of the md5 command line utility is available from http://www.fourmilab.ch/md5/. winMd5Sum is a graphical MD5 checking tool that can be obtained from http://www.nullriver.com/index/products/winmd5sum. Our Microsoft Windows examples will assume the name md5.exe.

Linux and Microsoft Windows examples:

shell> md5sum mysql-standard-8.0.19-linux-i686.tar.gz
aaab65abbec64d5e907dcd41b8699945  mysql-standard-8.0.19-linux-i686.tar.gz
shell> md5.exe mysql-installer-community-8.0.19.msi
aaab65abbec64d5e907dcd41b8699945  mysql-installer-community-8.0.19.msi

You should verify that the resulting checksum (the string of hexadecimal digits) matches the one displayed on the download page immediately below the respective package.

Note

Make sure to verify the checksum of the archive file (for example, the .zip, .tar.gz, or .msi file) and not of the files that are contained inside of the archive. In other words, verify the file before extracting its contents.

2.1.3.2 Signature Checking Using GnuPG

Another method of verifying the integrity and authenticity of a package is to use cryptographic signatures. This is more reliable than using MD5 checksums, but requires more work.

We sign MySQL downloadable packages with GnuPG (GNU Privacy Guard). GnuPG is an Open Source alternative to the well-known Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) by Phil Zimmermann. Most Linux distributions ship with GnuPG installed by default. Otherwise, see http://www.gnupg.org/ for more information about GnuPG and how to obtain and install it.

To verify the signature for a specific package, you first need to obtain a copy of our public GPG build key, which you can download from http://pgp.mit.edu/. The key that you want to obtain is named mysql-build@oss.oracle.com. Alternatively, you can copy and paste the key directly from the following text:

-----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
Version: GnuPG v1

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BCDgkdQXkGrsj2Wzw7Aw/TGdWWkmn2pxb8BRui5cfcZFO7c6vryi6FpJuLucX975
+eVY50ndWkPXkJ1HF4i+HJwRqE2zliN/RHMs4LJcwXQvvjD43EE3AO6eiVFbD+qA
AdxUFoOeLblKNBHPG7DPG9xL+Ni5rkE+TXShxsB7F0z7ZdJJZOG0JODmox7IstQT
GoaU9u41oyZTIiXPiFidJoIZCh7fdurP8pn3X+R5HUNXMr7M+ba8lSNxce/F3kmH
0L7rsKqdh9d/aVxhJINJ+inVDnrXWVoXu9GBjT8Nco1iU9SIVAQYEQIADAUCTnc9
7QUJE/sBuAASB2VHUEcAAQEJEIxxjTtQcuH1FJsAmwWK9vmwRJ/y9gTnJ8PWf0BV
roUTAKClYAhZuX2nUNwH4vlEJQHDqYa5yQ==
=ghXk
-----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----

To import the build key into your personal public GPG keyring, use gpg --import. For example, if you have saved the key in a file named mysql_pubkey.asc, the import command looks like this:

shell> gpg --import mysql_pubkey.asc
gpg: key 5072E1F5: public key "MySQL Release Engineering
<mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>" imported
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:               imported: 1
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found

You can also download the key from the public keyserver using the public key id, 5072E1F5:

shell> gpg --recv-keys 5072E1F5
gpg: requesting key 5072E1F5 from hkp server keys.gnupg.net
gpg: key 5072E1F5: "MySQL Release Engineering <mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>"
1 new user ID
gpg: key 5072E1F5: "MySQL Release Engineering <mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>"
53 new signatures
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:           new user IDs: 1
gpg:         new signatures: 53

If you want to import the key into your RPM configuration to validate RPM install packages, you should be able to import the key directly:

shell> rpm --import mysql_pubkey.asc

If you experience problems or require RPM specific information, see Section 2.1.3.4, “Signature Checking Using RPM”.

After you have downloaded and imported the public build key, download your desired MySQL package and the corresponding signature, which also is available from the download page. The signature file has the same name as the distribution file with an .asc extension, as shown by the examples in the following table.

Table 2.1 MySQL Package and Signature Files for Source files

File Type File Name
Distribution file mysql-standard-8.0.19-linux-i686.tar.gz
Signature file mysql-standard-8.0.19-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc

Make sure that both files are stored in the same directory and then run the following command to verify the signature for the distribution file:

shell> gpg --verify package_name.asc

If the downloaded package is valid, you will see a "Good signature" similar to:

shell> gpg --verify mysql-standard-8.0.19-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc
gpg: Signature made Tue 01 Feb 2011 02:38:30 AM CST using DSA key ID 5072E1F5
gpg: Good signature from "MySQL Release Engineering <mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>"

The Good signature message indicates that the file signature is valid, when compared to the signature listed on our site. But you might also see warnings, like so:

shell> gpg --verify mysql-standard-8.0.19-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc
gpg: Signature made Wed 23 Jan 2013 02:25:45 AM PST using DSA key ID 5072E1F5
gpg: checking the trustdb
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found
gpg: Good signature from "MySQL Release Engineering <mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>"
gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
gpg:          There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.
Primary key fingerprint: A4A9 4068 76FC BD3C 4567  70C8 8C71 8D3B 5072 E1F5

That is normal, as they depend on your setup and configuration. Here are explanations for these warnings:

  • gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found: This means that the specific key is not "ultimately trusted" by you or your web of trust, which is okay for the purposes of verifying file signatures.

  • WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature! There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.: This refers to your level of trust in your belief that you possess our real public key. This is a personal decision. Ideally, a MySQL developer would hand you the key in person, but more commonly, you downloaded it. Was the download tampered with? Probably not, but this decision is up to you. Setting up a web of trust is one method for trusting them.

See the GPG documentation for more information on how to work with public keys.

2.1.3.3 Signature Checking Using Gpg4win for Windows

The Section 2.1.3.2, “Signature Checking Using GnuPG” section describes how to verify MySQL downloads using GPG. That guide also applies to Microsoft Windows, but another option is to use a GUI tool like Gpg4win. You may use a different tool but our examples are based on Gpg4win, and utilize its bundled Kleopatra GUI.

Download and install Gpg4win, and then load Kleopatra. The dialog should look similar to:

Figure 2.1 Kleopatra: Initial Screen

Shows the default Kleopatra screen. The top menu includes "File", "View", "Certificates", "Tools", "Settings", "Window", and "Help.". Underneath the top menu is a horizontal action bar with available buttons to "Import Certificates", "Redisplay", and "Lookup Certificates on Server". Greyed out buttons are "Export Certificates" and "Stop Operation". Underneath is a search box titled "Find". Underneath that are three tabs: "My Certificates", "Trusted Certificates", and "Other Certificates" with the "My Certificates" tab selected. "My Certificates" contains six columns: "Name", "E-Mail", "Valid From", "Valid Until", "Details", and "Key-ID". There are no example values.

Next, add the MySQL Release Engineering certificate. Do this by clicking File, Lookup Certificates on Server. Type "Mysql Release Engineering" into the search box and press Search.

Figure 2.2 Kleopatra: Lookup Certificates on Server Wizard: Finding a Certificate

Shows a search input field titled "Find" with "mysql release engineering" entered. The one result contains the following values: Name=MySQL Release Engineering, E-Mail=mysql-build@oss.oracle.com, Valid From=2003-02-03, Valid Until="", Details=OpenPGP, Fingerprint=5072E1F5, and Key-ID=5072E1F5. Available action buttons are: Search, Select All, Deselect All, Details, Import, and Close.

Select the "MySQL Release Engineering" certificate. The Fingerprint and Key-ID must be "5072E1F5", or choose Details... to confirm the certificate is valid. Now, import it by clicking Import. An import dialog will be displayed, choose Okay, and this certificate will now be listed under the Imported Certificates tab.

Next, configure the trust level for our certificate. Select our certificate, then from the main menu select Certificates, Change Owner Trust.... We suggest choosing I believe checks are very accurate for our certificate, as otherwise you might not be able to verify our signature. Select I believe checks are very accurate to enable "full trust" and then press OK.

Figure 2.3 Kleopatra: Change Trust level for MySQL Release Engineering

A list of trust options are displayed, the options include "I don't know (unknown trust)", "I do NOT trust them (never trust)", "I believe checks are casual (marginal trust)", "I believe checks are very accurate (full trust)", and "This is my certificate (ultimate trust)". The "I believe checks are very accurate (full trust)" option is selected.

Next, verify the downloaded MySQL package file. This requires files for both the packaged file, and the signature. The signature file must have the same name as the packaged file but with an appended .asc extension, as shown by the example in the following table. The signature is linked to on the downloads page for each MySQL product. You must create the .asc file with this signature.

Table 2.2 MySQL Package and Signature Files for MySQL Installer for Microsoft Windows

File Type File Name
Distribution file mysql-installer-community-8.0.19.msi
Signature file mysql-installer-community-8.0.19.msi.asc

Make sure that both files are stored in the same directory and then run the following command to verify the signature for the distribution file. Either drag and drop the signature (.asc) file into Kleopatra, or load the dialog from File, Decrypt/Verify Files..., and then choose either the .msi or .asc file.

Figure 2.4 Kleopatra: The Decrypt and Verify Files Dialog

Shows available decrypt and verify options to perform. A MySQL Installer MSI file is used in the example where the .asc file is listed as "Input file" and the .msi file is listed under "Signed Data". The "Input file is detached signature" option's checkbox is checked. A "Input file is an archive; unpack with:" option is shown but greyed out. Below is the "Create all output files in a single folder" option checkbox that is checked, and an "Output folder" input field with "C:/docs" entered as an example. The available buttons are "Back" (greyed out), "Decrypt/Verify", and "Cancel."

Click Decrypt/Verify to check the file. The two most common results will look like the following, and although the yellow warning looks problematic, the following means that the file check passed with success. You may now run this installer.

Figure 2.5 Kleopatra: the Decrypt and Verify Results Dialog: All operations completed

Yellow portion of the results window shows "Not enough information to check signature validity" and "The validity of the signature cannot be verified." Also shown is key information, such as the KeyID and email address, the key's sign on date, and also displays the name of the ASC file..

Seeing a red "The signature is bad" error means the file is invalid. Do not execute the MSI file if you see this error.

Figure 2.6 Kleopatra: the Decrypt and Verify Results Dialog: Bad

Red portion of the results window shows "Invalid signature", "Signed with unknown certificate", "The signature is bad", and also displays the name of the ASC file.

The Section 2.1.3.2, “Signature Checking Using GnuPG” section explains why you probably don't see a green Good signature result.

2.1.3.4 Signature Checking Using RPM

For RPM packages, there is no separate signature. RPM packages have a built-in GPG signature and MD5 checksum. You can verify a package by running the following command:

shell> rpm --checksig package_name.rpm

Example:

shell> rpm --checksig MySQL-server-8.0.19-0.linux_glibc2.5.i386.rpm
MySQL-server-8.0.19-0.linux_glibc2.5.i386.rpm: md5 gpg OK
Note

If you are using RPM 4.1 and it complains about (GPG) NOT OK (MISSING KEYS: GPG#5072e1f5), even though you have imported the MySQL public build key into your own GPG keyring, you need to import the key into the RPM keyring first. RPM 4.1 no longer uses your personal GPG keyring (or GPG itself). Rather, RPM maintains a separate keyring because it is a system-wide application and a user's GPG public keyring is a user-specific file. To import the MySQL public key into the RPM keyring, first obtain the key, then use rpm --import to import the key. For example:

shell> gpg --export -a 5072e1f5 > 5072e1f5.asc
shell> rpm --import 5072e1f5.asc

Alternatively, rpm also supports loading the key directly from a URL, and you can use this manual page:

shell> rpm --import https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/checking-gpg-signature.html

If you need to obtain the MySQL public key, see Section 2.1.3.2, “Signature Checking Using GnuPG”.

2.1.4 Installation Layouts

The installation layout differs for different installation types (for example, native packages, binary tarballs, and source tarballs), which can lead to confusion when managing different systems or using different installation sources. The individual layouts are given in the corresponding installation type or platform chapter, as described following. Note that the layout of installations from vendors other than Oracle may differ from these layouts.

2.1.5 Compiler-Specific Build Characteristics

In some cases, the compiler used to build MySQL affects the features available for use. The notes in this section apply for binary distributions provided by Oracle Corporation or that you compile yourself from source.

icc (Intel C++ Compiler) Builds

A server built with icc has these characteristics:

  • SSL support is not included.

2.2 Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries

Oracle provides a set of binary distributions of MySQL. These include generic binary distributions in the form of compressed tar files (files with a .tar.xz extension) for a number of platforms, and binaries in platform-specific package formats for selected platforms.

This section covers the installation of MySQL from a compressed tar file binary distribution on Unix/Linux platforms. For other platform-specific binary package formats, see the other platform-specific sections in this manual. For example, for Windows distributions, see Section 2.3, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows”. See Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL” on how to obtain MySQL in different distribution formats.

MySQL compressed tar file binary distributions have names of the form mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.xz, where VERSION is a number (for example, 8.0.19), and OS indicates the type of operating system for which the distribution is intended (for example, pc-linux-i686 or winx64).

There is also a minimal install version of the MySQL compressed tar file for the Linux generic binary distribution, which has a name of the form mysql-VERSION-OS-minimal.tar.xz. The minimal install distribution excludes debug binaries and is stripped of debug symbols, making it significantly smaller than the regular binary distribution. If you choose to install the minimal install distribution, remember to adjust for the difference in file name format in the instructions that follow.

Warnings
  • If you have previously installed MySQL using your operating system native package management system, such as Yum or APT, you may experience problems installing using a native binary. Make sure your previous MySQL installation has been removed entirely (using your package management system), and that any additional files, such as old versions of your data files, have also been removed. You should also check for configuration files such as /etc/my.cnf or the /etc/mysql directory and delete them.

    For information about replacing third-party packages with official MySQL packages, see the related APT guide or Yum guide.

  • MySQL has a dependency on the libaio library. Data directory initialization and subsequent server startup steps will fail if this library is not installed locally. If necessary, install it using the appropriate package manager. For example, on Yum-based systems:

    shell> yum search libaio  # search for info
    shell> yum install libaio # install library
    

    Or, on APT-based systems:

    shell> apt-cache search libaio # search for info
    shell> apt-get install libaio1 # install library
    
  • Oracle Linux 8 / Red Hat 8 (EL8): These platforms by default do not install the file /lib64/libtinfo.so.5, which is required by the MySQL client bin/mysql for packages mysql-VERSION-el7-x86_64.tar.gz and mysql-VERSION-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.xz. To work around this issue, install the ncurses-compat-libs package:

    shell> yum install ncurses-compat-libs
    

To install a compressed tar file binary distribution, unpack it at the installation location you choose (typically /usr/local/mysql). This creates the directories shown in the following table.

Table 2.3 MySQL Installation Layout for Generic Unix/Linux Binary Package

Directory Contents of Directory
bin mysqld server, client and utility programs
docs MySQL manual in Info format
man Unix manual pages
include Include (header) files
lib Libraries
share Error messages, dictionary, and SQL for database installation
support-files Miscellaneous support files

Debug versions of the mysqld binary are available as mysqld-debug. To compile your own debug version of MySQL from a source distribution, use the appropriate configuration options to enable debugging support. See Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source”.

To install and use a MySQL binary distribution, the command sequence looks like this:

shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -r -g mysql -s /bin/false mysql
shell> cd /usr/local
shell> tar xvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.xz
shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql
shell> cd mysql
shell> mkdir mysql-files
shell> chown mysql:mysql mysql-files
shell> chmod 750 mysql-files
shell> bin/mysqld --initialize --user=mysql
shell> bin/mysql_ssl_rsa_setup
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
# Next command is optional
shell> cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql.server
Note

This procedure assumes that you have root (administrator) access to your system. Alternatively, you can prefix each command using the sudo (Linux) or pfexec (Solaris) command.

The mysql-files directory provides a convenient location to use as the value for the secure_file_priv system variable, which limits import and export operations to a specific directory. See Section 5.1.8, “Server System Variables”.

A more detailed version of the preceding description for installing a binary distribution follows.

Create a mysql User and Group

If your system does not already have a user and group to use for running mysqld, you may need to create them. The following commands add the mysql group and the mysql user. You might want to call the user and group something else instead of mysql. If so, substitute the appropriate name in the following instructions. The syntax for useradd and groupadd may differ slightly on different versions of Unix/Linux, or they may have different names such as adduser and addgroup.

shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -r -g mysql -s /bin/false mysql
Note

Because the user is required only for ownership purposes, not login purposes, the useradd command uses the -r and -s /bin/false options to create a user that does not have login permissions to your server host. Omit these options if your useradd does not support them.

Obtain and Unpack the Distribution

Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution and change location into it. The example here unpacks the distribution under /usr/local. The instructions, therefore, assume that you have permission to create files and directories in /usr/local. If that directory is protected, you must perform the installation as root.

shell> cd /usr/local

Obtain a distribution file using the instructions in Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”. For a given release, binary distributions for all platforms are built from the same MySQL source distribution.

Unpack the distribution, which creates the installation directory. tar can uncompress and unpack the distribution if it has z option support:

shell> tar xvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.xz

The tar command creates a directory named mysql-VERSION-OS.

To install MySQL from a compressed tar file binary distribution, your system must have GNU XZ Utils to uncompress the distribution and a reasonable tar to unpack it.

Note

The compression algorithm changed from Gzip to XZ in MySQL Server 8.0.12; and the generic binary's file extension changed from .tar.gz to .tar.xz.

GNU tar is known to work. The standard tar provided with some operating systems is not able to unpack the long file names in the MySQL distribution. You should download and install GNU tar, or if available, use a preinstalled version of GNU tar. Usually this is available as gnutar, gtar, or as tar within a GNU or Free Software directory, such as /usr/sfw/bin or /usr/local/bin. GNU tar is available from http://www.gnu.org/software/tar/.

If your tar does not support the xz format then use the xz command to unpack the distribution and tar to unpack it. Replace the preceding tar command with the following alternative command to uncompress and extract the distribution:

shell> xz -dc /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.xz | tar x

Next, create a symbolic link to the installation directory created by tar:

shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql

The ln command makes a symbolic link to the installation directory. This enables you to refer more easily to it as /usr/local/mysql. To avoid having to type the path name of client programs always when you are working with MySQL, you can add the /usr/local/mysql/bin directory to your PATH variable:

shell> export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/mysql/bin

Perform Postinstallation Setup

The remainder of the installation process involves setting distribution ownership and access permissions, initializing the data directory, starting the MySQL server, and setting up the configuration file. For instructions, see Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”.

2.3 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows

Important

MySQL 8.0 Server requires the Microsoft Visual C++ 2015 Redistributable Package to run on Windows platforms. Users should make sure the package has been installed on the system before installing the server. The package is available at the Microsoft Download Center. Additionally, MySQL debug binaries require Visual Studio 2015 to be installed.

MySQL is available for Microsoft Windows 64-bit operating systems only. For supported Windows platform information, see https://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html.

There are different methods to install MySQL on Microsoft Windows.

MySQL Installer Method

The simplest and recommended method is to download MySQL Installer (for Windows) and let it install and configure a specific version of MySQL Server as follows:

  1. Download MySQL Installer from https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/installer/ and execute it.

    Note

    Unlike the standard MySQL Installer, the smaller "web-community" version does not bundle any MySQL applications but it will download the MySQL products you choose to install.

  2. Determine the setup type to use for the initial installation of MySQL products. For example:

    • Developer Default: Provides a setup type that includes the selected version of MySQL Server and other MySQL tools related to MySQL development, such as MySQL Workbench.

    • Server Only: Provides a setup for the selected version of MySQL Server without other products.

    • Custom: Enables you to select any version of MySQL Server and other MySQL products.

  3. Install the server instance (and products) and then begin the server configuration by first selecting one of the following levels of availability for the server instance:

    • Standalone MySQL Server / Classic MySQL Replication (default)

      Configures a server instance to run without high availability.

    • InnoDB cluster

      Provides two configuration options based on MySQL Group Replication to:

      • Configure multiple server instances in a sandbox InnoDB cluster on the local host (for testing only).

      • Create a new InnoDB cluster and configure one seed instance or add a new server instance to an existing InnoDB cluster.

  4. Complete the configuration process by following the onscreen instructions. For more information about each individual step, see Section 2.3.3.3.1, “MySQL Server Configuration with MySQL Installer”.

MySQL is now installed. If you configured MySQL as a service, then Windows will automatically start MySQL server every time you restart your system. Also, this process installs the MySQL Installer application on the local host, which you can use later to upgrade or reconfigure MySQL server.

Note

If you installed MySQL Workbench on your system, consider using it to check your new MySQL server connection. By default, the program automatically start after installing MySQL.

Additional Installation Information

It is possible to run MySQL as a standard application or as a Windows service. By using a service, you can monitor and control the operation of the server through the standard Windows service management tools. For more information, see Section 2.3.4.8, “Starting MySQL as a Windows Service”.

To accommodate the RESTART statement, the MySQL server forks when run as a service or standalone, to enable a monitor process to supervise the server process. In this case, you will observe two mysqld processes. If RESTART capability is not required, the server can be started with the --no-monitor option. See Section 13.7.7.8, “RESTART Syntax”.

Generally, you should install MySQL on Windows using an account that has administrator rights. Otherwise, you may encounter problems with certain operations such as editing the PATH environment variable or accessing the Service Control Manager. When installed, MySQL does not need to be executed using a user with Administrator privileges.

For a list of limitations on the use of MySQL on the Windows platform, see Section C.10.5, “Windows Platform Limitations”.

In addition to the MySQL Server package, you may need or want additional components to use MySQL with your application or development environment. These include, but are not limited to:

  • To connect to the MySQL server using ODBC, you must have a Connector/ODBC driver. For more information, including installation and configuration instructions, see MySQL Connector/ODBC Developer Guide.

    Note

    MySQL Installer will install and configure Connector/ODBC for you.

  • To use MySQL server with .NET applications, you must have the Connector/NET driver. For more information, including installation and configuration instructions, see MySQL Connector/NET Developer Guide.

    Note

    MySQL Installer will install and configure MySQL Connector/NET for you.

MySQL distributions for Windows can be downloaded from https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/. See Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”.

MySQL for Windows is available in several distribution formats, detailed here. Generally speaking, you should use MySQL Installer. It contains more features and MySQL products than the older MSI, is simpler to use than the compressed file, and you need no additional tools to get MySQL up and running. MySQL Installer automatically installs MySQL Server and additional MySQL products, creates an options file, starts the server, and enables you to create default user accounts. For more information on choosing a package, see Section 2.3.2, “Choosing an Installation Package”.

MySQL on Windows Considerations

  • Large Table Support

    If you need tables with a size larger than 4GB, install MySQL on an NTFS or newer file system. Do not forget to use MAX_ROWS and AVG_ROW_LENGTH when you create tables. See Section 13.1.20, “CREATE TABLE Syntax”.

  • MySQL and Virus Checking Software

    Virus-scanning software such as Norton/Symantec Anti-Virus on directories containing MySQL data and temporary tables can cause issues, both in terms of the performance of MySQL and the virus-scanning software misidentifying the contents of the files as containing spam. This is due to the fingerprinting mechanism used by the virus-scanning software, and the way in which MySQL rapidly updates different files, which may be identified as a potential security risk.

    After installing MySQL Server, it is recommended that you disable virus scanning on the main directory (datadir) used to store your MySQL table data. There is usually a system built into the virus-scanning software to enable specific directories to be ignored.

    In addition, by default, MySQL creates temporary files in the standard Windows temporary directory. To prevent the temporary files also being scanned, configure a separate temporary directory for MySQL temporary files and add this directory to the virus scanning exclusion list. To do this, add a configuration option for the tmpdir parameter to your my.ini configuration file. For more information, see Section 2.3.4.2, “Creating an Option File”.

2.3.1 MySQL Installation Layout on Microsoft Windows

For MySQL 8.0 on Windows, the default installation directory is C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0 for installations performed with MySQL Installer. If you use the ZIP archive method to install MySQL, you may prefer to install in C:\mysql. However, the layout of the subdirectories remains the same.

All of the files are located within this parent directory, using the structure shown in the following table.

Table 2.4 Default MySQL Installation Layout for Microsoft Windows

Directory Contents of Directory Notes
bin mysqld server, client and utility programs
%PROGRAMDATA%\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\ Log files, databases The Windows system variable %PROGRAMDATA% defaults to C:\ProgramData.
docs Release documentation With MySQL Installer, use the Modify operation to select this optional folder.
include Include (header) files
lib Libraries
share Miscellaneous support files, including error messages, character set files, sample configuration files, SQL for database installation

2.3.2 Choosing an Installation Package

For MySQL 8.0, there are multiple installation package formats to choose from when installing MySQL on Windows. The package formats described in this section are:

Program Database (PDB) files (with file name extension pdb) provide information for debugging your MySQL installation in the event of a problem. These files are included in ZIP Archive distributions (but not MSI distributions) of MySQL.

MySQL Installer

This package has a file name similar to mysql-installer-community-8.0.19.0.msi or mysql-installer-commercial-8.0.19.0.msi, and utilizes MSIs to automatically install MySQL server and other products. MySQL Installer will download and apply updates to itself, and for each of the installed products. It also configures the installed MySQL server (including a sandbox InnoDB cluster test setup) and MySQL Router. MySQL Installer is recommended for most users.

MySQL Installer can install and manage (add, modify, upgrade, and remove) many other MySQL products, including:

  • Applications – MySQL Workbench, MySQL for Visual Studio, MySQL for Excel, MySQL Shell, and MySQL Router (see https://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql-compat-matrix/en/)

  • Connectors – MySQL Connector/C, MySQL Connector/C++, MySQL Connector/NET, Connector/ODBC, MySQL Connector/Python, MySQL Connector/J, MySQL Connector/Node.js

  • Documentation – MySQL Manual (PDF format), samples and examples

MySQL Installer operates on all MySQL supported versions of Windows (see https://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html).

Note

Because MySQL Installer is not a native component of Microsoft Windows and depends on .NET, it will not work on minimal installation options like the Server Core version of Windows Server.

For instructions on how to install MySQL using MySQL Installer, see Section 2.3.3, “MySQL Installer for Windows”.

MySQL noinstall ZIP Archives

These packages contain the files found in the complete MySQL Server installation package, with the exception of the GUI. This format does not include an automated installer, and must be manually installed and configured.

The noinstall ZIP archives are split into two separate compressed files. The main package is named mysql-VERSION-winx64.zip. This contains the components needed to use MySQL on your system. The optional MySQL test suite, MySQL benchmark suite, and debugging binaries/information components (including PDB files) are in a separate compressed file named mysql-VERSION-winx64-debug-test.zip.

If you choose to install a noinstall ZIP archive, see Section 2.3.4, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall ZIP Archive”.

MySQL Docker Images

For information on using the MySQL Docker images provided by Oracle on Windows platform, see Section 2.5.6.3, “Deploying MySQL on Windows and Other Non-Linux Platforms with Docker”.

Warning

The MySQL Docker images provided by Oracle are built specifically for Linux platforms. Other platforms are not supported, and users running the MySQL Docker images from Oracle on them are doing so at their own risk.

2.3.3 MySQL Installer for Windows

MySQL Installer is a standalone application designed to ease the complexity of installing and configuring MySQL products that run on Microsoft Windows. It supports the following MySQL products:

  • MySQL Servers

    MySQL Installer can install and manage multiple, separate MySQL server instances on the same host at the same time. For example, MySQL Installer can install, configure, and upgrade a separate instance of MySQL 5.6, MySQL 5.7, and MySQL 8.0 on the same host. MySQL Installer does not permit server upgrades between major and minor version numbers, but does permit upgrades within a release series (such as 5.7.18 to 5.7.19).

    Note

    MySQL Installer cannot install both Community and Commercial (Standard Edition and Enterprise Edition) releases of MySQL server on the same host. If you require both releases on the same host, consider using the ZIP archive distribution to install one of the releases.

  • MySQL Applications

    MySQL Workbench, MySQL Shell, MySQL Router, MySQL for Visual Studio, MySQL for Excel, MySQL Notifier, and MySQL Utilities.

  • MySQL Connectors

    MySQL Connector/NET, MySQL Connector/Python, MySQL Connector/ODBC, MySQL Connector/J, MySQL Connector/C, and MySQL Connector/C++.

    Note

    To install MySQL Connector/Node.js, see https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/connector/nodejs/. Connector/Node.js does not provide an .msi file for use with MySQL Installer.

  • Documentation and Samples

    MySQL Reference Manuals (by version) in PDF format and MySQL database samples (by version).

Installation Requirements

MySQL Installer requires Microsoft .NET Framework 4.5.2 or later. If this version is not installed on the host computer, you can download it by visiting the Microsoft website.

MySQL Installer Community Release

Download software from https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/installer/ to install the Community release of all MySQL products for Windows. Select one of the following MySQL Installer package options:

  • Web: Contains MySQL Installer and configuration files only. The web package downloads only the MySQL products you select to install, but it requires an internet connection for each download. The size of this file is approximately 2 MB; the name of the file has the form mysql-installer-community-web-VERSION.N.msi where VERSION is the MySQL server version number such as 8.0 and N is the package number, which begins at 0.

  • Full or Current Bundle: Bundles all of the MySQL products for Windows (including the MySQL server). The file size is over 300 MB, and the name has the form mysql-installer-community-VERSION.N.msi where VERSION is the MySQL Server version number such as 8.0 and N is the package number, which begins at 0.

MySQL Installer Commercial Release

Download software from https://edelivery.oracle.com/ to install the Commercial (Standard Edition or Enterprise Edition) release of MySQL products for Windows. The Commercial release includes all of the current and previous GA versions in the Community release (excludes development-milestone versions) and also includes the following products:

  • Workbench SE/EE

  • MySQL Enterprise Backup

  • MySQL Enterprise Firewall

The Commercial release integrates with your My Oracle Support (MOS) account. For knowledge-base content and patches, see My Oracle Support.

2.3.3.1 MySQL Installer Initial Setup

When you download MySQL Installer for the first time, a setup wizard guides you through the initial installation of MySQL products. As the following figure shows, the initial setup is a one-time activity in the overall process. MySQL Installer detects existing MySQL products installed on the host during its initial setup and adds them to the list of products to be managed.

Figure 2.7 MySQL Installer Process Overview

MySQL Installer process. Non-repeating steps: download MySQL Installer; perform the initial setup. Repeating steps: install products (download products, run .msi files, configuration, and install complete); manage products and update the MySQL Installer catalog.

MySQL Installer extracts configuration files (described later) to the hard drive of the host during the initial setup. Although MySQL Installer is a 32-bit application, it can install both 32-bit and 64-bit binaries.

The initial setup adds a link to the Start menu under the MySQL group. Click Start, All Programs, MySQL, MySQL Installer to open MySQL Installer.

MySQL Installer Licensing and Support Authentication

MySQL Installer requires you to accept the license agreement before it will install new MySQL packages. After you accept the terms of the agreement, you can add, update, reconfigure, and remove all of the products and features provided by the MySQL Installer release you downloaded.

For the Commercial release, entering your My Oracle Support (MOS) credentials is optional when installing bundled MySQL products, but your credentials are required when choosing unbundled MySQL products that MySQL Installer must download. An unbundled product is any .msi file that you download using MySQL Installer after the initial setup. Your credentials must match the user name and password that you have registered with Oracle for access to the support site.

Choosing a Setup Type

During the initial setup, you are prompted to select the MySQL products to be installed on the host. One alternative is to use a predetermined setup type that matches your setup requirements. By default, both GA and pre-release products are included in the download and installation with the Developer Default, Client only, and Full setup types. Select the Only install GA products option to restrict the product set to include GA products only when using these setup types.

Choosing one of the following setup types determines the initial installation only and does not limit your ability to install or update MySQL products for Windows later:

  • Developer Default: Install the following products that compliment application development with MySQL:

  • Server only: Only install the MySQL server. This setup type installs the general availability (GA) or development release server that you selected when you downloaded MySQL Installer. It uses the default installation and data paths.

  • Client only: Only install the most recent MySQL applications and MySQL connectors. This setup type is similar to the Developer Default type, except that it does not include MySQL server or the client programs typically bundled with the server, such as mysql or mysqladmin.

  • Full: Install all available MySQL products.

  • Custom The custom setup type enables you to filter and select individual MySQL products from the MySQL Installer catalog.

    Use the Custom setup type to install:

    • A product or product version that is not available from the usual download locations. The catalog contains all product releases, including the other releases between pre-release (or development) and GA.

    • An instance of MySQL server using an alternative installation path, data path, or both. For instructions on how to adjust the paths, see Section 2.3.3.2, “Setting Alternative Server Paths with MySQL Installer”.

    • Two or more MySQL server versions on the same host at the same time (for example, 5.6, 5.7, and 8.0).

    • A specific combination of products and features not offered as a predetermine setup type. For example, you can install a single product, such as MySQL Workbench, instead of installing all client applications for Windows.

Path Conflicts

When the default installation or data folder (required by MySQL server) for a product to be installed already exists on the host, the wizard displays the Path Conflict step to identify each conflict and enable you to take action to avoid having files in the existing folder overwritten by the new installation. You see this step in the initial setup only when MySQL Installer detects a conflict.

To resolve the path conflict, do one of the following:

  • Select a product from the list to display the conflict options. A warning symbol indicates which path is in conflict. Use the browse button to choose a new path and then click Next.

  • Click Back to choose a different setup type or product version, if applicable. The Custom setup type enables you to select individual product versions.

  • Click Next to ignore the conflict and overwrite files in the existing folder.

  • Delete the existing product. Click Cancel to stop the initial setup and close MySQL Installer. Open MySQL Installer again from the Start menu and delete the installed product from the host using the Delete operation from the dashboard.

Check Requirements

MySQL Installer uses entries in the package-rules.xml file to determine whether the prerequisite software for each product is installed on the host. When the requirements check fails, MySQL Installer displays the Check Requirements step to help you update the host. The following figure identifies and describes the key areas of this step.

Figure 2.8 Check Requirements

MySQL Installer check-requirements before any requirements are downloaded and installed.

Description of Check Requirements Elements
  1. Shows the current step in the initial setup. Steps in this list may change slightly depending on the products already installed on the host, the availability of prerequisite software, and the products to be installed on the host.

  2. Lists all pending installation requirements by product and indicates the status as follows:

    • A blank space in the Status column means that MySQL Installer can attempt to download and install the required software for you.

    • The word Manual in the Status column means that you must satisfy the requirement manually. Select each product in the list to see its requirement details.

  3. Describes the requirement in detail to assist you with each manual resolution. When possible, a download URL is provided. After you download and install the required software, click Check to verify that the requirement has been met.

  4. Provides the following set operations to proceed:

    • Back – Return to the previous step. This action enables you to select a different the setup type.

    • Execute – Have MySQL Installer attempt to download and install the required software for all items without a manual status. Manual requirements are resolved by you and verified by clicking Check.

    • Next – Do not execute the request to apply the requirements automatically and proceed to the installation without including the products that fail the check requirements step.

    • Cancel – Stop the installation of MySQL products. Because MySQL Installer is already installed, the initial setup begins again when you open MySQL Installer from the Start menu and click Add from the dashboard. For a description of the available management operations, see Product Catalog.

MySQL Installer Configuration Files

All MySQL Installer files are located within the C:\Program Files (x86) and C:\ProgramData folders. The following table describes the files and folders that define MySQL Installer as a standalone application.

Note

Installed MySQL products are neither altered nor removed when you update or uninstall MySQL Installer.

Table 2.5 MySQL Installer Configuration Files

File or Folder Description Folder Hierarchy
MySQL Installer for Windows This folder contains all of the files needed to run MySQL Installer and MySQLInstallerConsole.exe, a command-line program with similar functionality. C:\Program Files (x86)
Templates The Templates folder has one file for each version of MySQL server. Template files contain keys and formulas to calculate some values dynamically. C:\ProgramData\MySQL\MySQL Installer for Windows\Manifest
package-rules.xml

This file contains the prerequisites for every product to be installed.

C:\ProgramData\MySQL\MySQL Installer for Windows\Manifest
produts.xml

The products file (or product catalog) contains a list of all products available for download.

C:\ProgramData\MySQL\MySQL Installer for Windows\Manifest
Product Cache

The Product Cache folder contains all standalone .msi files bundled with the full package or downloaded afterward.

C:\ProgramData\MySQL\MySQL Installer for Windows

2.3.3.2 Setting Alternative Server Paths with MySQL Installer

You can change the default installation path, the data path, or both when you install MySQL server. After you have installed the server, the paths cannot be altered without removing and reinstalling the server instance.

To change paths for MySQL server

  1. Identify the MySQL server to change and display the Advanced Options link.

    1. Navigate to the Select Products and Features step by doing one of the following:

      1. If this is an initial setup of MySQL Installer, select the Custom setup type and click Next.

      2. If MySQL Installer is installed already, launch it from the Start menu and then click Add from the dashboard.

    2. Click Edit to apply a filter on the product list shown in Available Products (see Locating Products to Install.

    3. With the server instance selected, use the arrow to move the selected server to the Products/Features To Be Installed list.

    4. Click the server to select it. When you select the server, the Advanced Options link appears. For details, see the figure that follows.

  2. Click Advanced Options to open a dialog box where you can enter alternative path names. After the path names are validated, click Next to continue with the configuration steps.

    Figure 2.9 Change MySQL Server Path

    Content is described in the surrounding text.

2.3.3.3 Installation Workflow with MySQL Installer

MySQL Installer provides a wizard-like tool to install and configure new MySQL products for Windows. Unlike the initial setup, which runs only once, MySQL Installer invokes the wizard each time you download or install a new product. For first-time installations, the steps of the initial setup proceed directly into the steps of the installation.

Note

Full permissions are granted to the user executing MySQL Installer to all generated files, such as my.ini. This does not apply to files and directories for specific products, such as the MySQL server data directory in %ProgramData% that is owned by SYSTEM.

Products installed and configured on a host follow a general pattern that might require your input during the various steps. MySQL Installer loads all selected products together using the following workflow:

  • Product download.  If you installed the full (not web) MySQL Installer package, all .msi files were loaded to the Product Cache folder during the initial setup and are not downloaded again. Otherwise, click Execute to begin the download. The status of each product changes from Downloading to Downloaded.

  • Product installation.  The status of each product in the list changes from Ready to Install, to Installing, and lastly to Complete. During the process, click Show Details to view the installation actions.

    If you cancel the installation at this point, the products are installed, but the server (if installed) is not yet configured. To restart the server configuration, open MySQL Installer from the Start menu and click the Reconfigure link next to the appropriate server in the dashboard.

  • Product configuration.  This step applies to MySQL Server, MySQL Router, and samples only. The status for each item in the list should indicate Ready to Configure.

    Click Next to start the configuration wizard for all items in the list. The configuration options presented during this step are specific to the version of database or router that you selected to install.

    Click Execute to begin applying the configuration options or click Back (repeatedly) to return to each configuration page. Click Finish to open the MySQL Installer dashboard.

  • Installation complete.  This step finalizes the installation for products that do not require configuration. It enables you to copy the log to a clipboard and to start certain applications, such as MySQL Workbench and MySQL Shell. Click Finish to open the MySQL Installer dashboard.

2.3.3.3.1 MySQL Server Configuration with MySQL Installer

MySQL Installer performs the initial configuration of the MySQL server. For example:

  • For the MySQL 8.0 release series, a server can be configured to run as a standalone database, as a sandbox InnoDB cluster on a single host, or to create a production InnoDB cluster inside a local network (see Section 2.3.3.3.1.1, “High Availability”).

  • It creates the configuration file (my.ini) that is used to configure the MySQL server. The values written to this file are influenced by choices you make during the installation process. Some definitions are host dependent. For example, query_cache is enabled if the host has fewer than three cores.

    Note

    Query cache was deprecated in MySQL 5.7 and removed in MySQL 8.0 (and later).

  • By default, a Windows service for the MySQL server is added.

  • Provides default installation and data paths for MySQL server. For instructions on how to change the default paths, see Section 2.3.3.2, “Setting Alternative Server Paths with MySQL Installer”.

  • It can optionally create MySQL server user accounts with configurable permissions based on general roles, such as DB Administrator, DB Designer, and Backup Admin. It optionally creates a Windows user named MysqlSys with limited privileges, which would then run the MySQL Server.

    User accounts may also be added and configured in MySQL Workbench.

  • Checking Show Advanced Options enables additional Logging Options to be set. This includes defining custom file paths for the error log, general log, slow query log (including the configuration of seconds it requires to execute a query), and the binary log.

During the configuration process, click Next to proceed to the next step or Back to return to the previous step. Click Execute at the final step to apply the server configuration.

The sections that follow describe the server configuration options that apply to MySQL server on Windows. The server version you installed will determine which steps and options you can configure. Configuring MySQL server may include some or all of the steps.

2.3.3.3.1.1 High Availability

MySQL Installer enables you to install, configure, and deploy MySQL Server as a standalone instance or as a member of a highly available cluster using MySQL Group Replication. In either case, MySQL Installer restricts the installation and configuration of the server (or servers) to the local Windows host computer.

  • Standalone MySQL Server / Classic MySQL Replication (default)

    Select this option to configure one MySQL instance to run as a standalone database server. This option is ideal if you intend to set up classic replication later and then to include this server in your custom solution. The remaining configuration steps are described in the sections that follow, starting with Type and Networking.

  • InnoDB cluster

    Select this option to create or extend an InnoDB cluster solution that is based on MySQL Group Replication (see Section 21.1, “Introducing InnoDB Cluster”). You can configure (or reconfigure) a minimum of three server instances to perform a basic setup as a test-only sandbox cluster on a single computer or to create a production cluster inside a local network.

    InnoDB Cluster Log Verbosity Level.  This configuration step includes an adjustable log that captures information during the configuration of each server instance in the production or sandbox cluster. The values are: MINIMAL, MEDIUM (default), and DEBUG. If the cluster configuration fails, use the Reconfigure action from the MySQL Installer dashboard to restart the configuration and then set the verbosity level to DEBUG to gather additional information during your next attempt.

    MySQL Installer provides the following configuration variations to deploy an InnoDB cluster:

    • Set Up a Local Server Cluster for Testing Only

      Select Create a Sandbox InnoDB cluster for Testing to enable this option. When prompted, define the number of server sandbox instances in the cluster, set a password for the root user, and adjust the InnoDB cluster log verbosity level as needed. For a more detailed description of the configuration, see Deploying a Sandbox InnoDB Cluster with MySQL Installer. This setup requires MySQL 5.7.17 or higher.

    • Create or Join an InnoDB cluster

      To set up a highly available InnoDB cluster using MySQL Installer, you must have a minimum of three computers on a local network. If you require a more advanced setup, use MySQL Shell to configure some or all of the server instances in the cluster. For details about how to perform a local-network cluster setup, see Setting up an InnoDB cluster with MySQL Installer. This setup requires MySQL 8.0.0 or higher.

    InnoDB cluster was designed to operate with MySQL Shell, which enables you to perform advanced cluster administration, and MySQL Router to automate the connections made between client applications and server instances. Neither MySQL Shell nor MySQL Router are required to deploy a cluster on Windows using MySQL Installer.

Deploying a Sandbox InnoDB Cluster with MySQL Installer

A sandbox deployment includes multiple server sandbox instances that run together on the same computer. Because all server instances reside on the same computer, a sandbox cluster does not meet the requirements of a highly available solution. Instead, this deployment option simulates an environment from which you can explore the techniques associated with InnoDB cluster administration.

When you select Create a Sandbox InnoDB cluster for Testing, a follow-on step prompts you to select a cluster consisting of three, five, seven, or nine MySQL server instances. Unlike the other server setups provided by MySQL Installer, the sandbox deployment skips the usual server configuration steps (except Authentication Method). The resulting cluster, named sandboxCluster, is available on selected ports that are configured for you.

Note

MySQL Installer deletes ports 3310 to 3390 during the configuration, if those ports were set for the sandbox InnoDB cluster manually using MySQL Shell.

Each sandbox instance is configured to run as a process (not a Windows service). You must start each instance in the sandbox cluster manually after restarting the computer.

After you create the test cluster, click the Summary tab to view the specific ports that apply to your cluster. To modify the number of server instances within the existing cluster or to adjust the logging level, use the Reconfigure quick action from the MySQL Installer dashboard.

Warning

MySQL Installer deletes all existing sandbox cluster data when the cluster is reconfigured or when the server instances within the sandbox cluster are upgraded.

MySQL Installer stores all sandbox InnoDB cluster configuration entries in the installer_config.xml file. By default, MySQL Installer creates the sandbox instances in %userprofile%\MySQL\mysql-sandboxes on the local host.

Setting up InnoDB Cluster with MySQL Installer

To create a single InnoDB cluster, select InnoDB Cluster as the High Availability option and then select Create a New InnoDB Cluster. Adjust the log verbosity level (as needed), and click Next to configure the first server instance. This setup process involves installing and running MySQL Installer on multiple computers.

Define the first server instance (or seed) by providing the following configuration information:

  • InnoDB Cluster Name:

    The default cluster name is myCluster. If you intend to configure multiple clusters, replace the default name with one that is meaningful within your solution. Alphanumeric characters, spaces, and underscore (_) characters are valid for this field. The limit is 40 characters.

  • Cluster Admin User Name:

    The default cluster administrator name is ic. You can reuse the same MySQL administrative account across multiple clusters. You will be prompted for this account name (and password) later when you configure other server instances to join the cluster. The limit is 32 characters.

  • Cluster Admin Password:

    Enter a password for the cluster administrator account (minimum length is four characters). MySQL Installer will evaluate the strength of the MySQL password as you type. Use the Repeat Password field to confirm the password.

  • Host Address:

    Select the host name or IP address of the local host from the list. When joining additional server instances to the cluster, you will be prompted to identify the seed instance by the host name or IP address.

  • Server ID:

    The default value is 1. This identifier is required to record the events of a server instance in the binary log. The ID of each server instance within a cluster must be unique; however, you can reuse the same number in a different cluster. The server ID you specify in this field also appears later in Advanced Options step. If you change the value in Advanced Option, the number is changed for the InnoDB cluster Setup too.

Click Next and then complete the remaining configuration steps, which are described in the sections that follow, starting with Type and Networking. After the seed instance is added and the cluster is created, it requires more instances for full tolerance. At this point, the status is OK_NO_TOLERANCE.

To add the second and third server instances to the cluster, you must use a separate computer inside the local network for each. Some of the configuration details of the seed instance are required to complete the join operation.

After you start MySQL Installer and install the server instance on the next computer, begin the configuration by selecting InnoDB Cluster as the High Availability option and then select Add Local MySQL Server Instance to an InnoDB Cluster. Adjust the InnoDB Cluster Log Verbosity Level (as needed) and then click Next.

Define the joining server instance by providing the following configuration information:

  • Seed Instance Address:

    Enter the host name or IP address of the computer that hosts the seed instance.

  • Seed Instance Port:

    The default value is 3306, which is the port for classic MySQL. Use the same TCP port that you configured for the seed instance.

  • Cluster Admin User Name:

    The default cluster administrator name is ic. If you assigned a different name when you configured the seed instance, enter the alternative cluster administrator name.

  • Cluster Admin Password:

    Enter the password assigned to the cluster administrator account.

  • Host Address:

    Select the host name or IP address of the local host from the list.

  • Server ID:

    The default value is 1. This identifier is required to record the events of a server instance in the binary log. The ID of each server instance within a cluster must be unique; however, you can reuse the same number in a different cluster. The server ID you specify in this field also appears later in Advanced Options step. If you change the value in Advanced Option, the number is changed for the InnoDB cluster Setup too.

  • Test Connection

    Use this button to verify the connection between the local server instance and the seed instance defined for the cluster. A valid connection is required to proceed.

Click Next and then complete the remaining configuration steps, which are described in the sections that follow, starting with Type and Networking.

With one seed instance and a second server instance in the cluster, the status is OK_NO_TOLERANCE. After you add the third server instance, the status is OK, which indicates that the cluster now is tolerant to the failure of one instance.

2.3.3.3.1.2 Type and Networking
  • Server Configuration Type

    Choose the MySQL server configuration type that describes your setup. This setting defines the amount of system resources (memory) that will be assigned to your MySQL server instance.

    • Development: A machine that will host many other applications, and typically this is your personal workstation. This option configures MySQL to use the least amount of memory.

    • Server: Several other applications will be running on this machine, such as a web server. This option configures MySQL to use a medium amount of memory.

    • Dedicated: A machine that is dedicated to running the MySQL server. Because no other major applications will run on this server, such as a web server, this option configures MySQL to use the majority of available memory.

  • Connectivity

    Connectivity options control how the connection to MySQL is made. Options include:

    • TCP/IP: You may enable TCP/IP Networking here as otherwise only local host connections are permitted. Also define the Port (for the classic MySQL protocol), X Protocol Port (for MySQL as a document store), and whether to open the firewall port for network access. If the port number is in use already, you will see the information icon () next to the default value and Next is disabled until you provide a new port number.

    • Named Pipe: Enable and define the pipe name, similar to setting the named_pipe system variable. The default name is MySQL.

    • Shared Memory: Enable and then define the memory name, similar to setting the shared_memory system variable. The default name is MySQL.

  • Advanced Configuration

    Check Show Advanced and Logging Options to set custom logging and advanced options in later steps. The Logging Options step enables you to define custom file paths for the error log, general log, slow query log (including the configuration of seconds it requires to execute a query), and the binary log. The Advanced Options step enables you to set the unique server ID required when binary logging is enabled in a replication topology.

  • MySQL Enterprise Firewall (Enterprise Edition only)

    The Enable Enterprise Firewall check box is selected by default. For post-installation instructions, see Section 6.4.7, “MySQL Enterprise Firewall”.

2.3.3.3.1.3 Authentication Method

The Authentication Method step is visible only during the installation or upgrade of MySQL 8.0.4 or higher. It introduces a choice between two server-side authentication options. The MySQL user accounts that you create in the next step will use the authentication method that you select in this step.

MySQL 8.0 connectors and community drivers that use libmysqlclient 8.0 now support the mysql_native_password default authentication plugin. However, if you are unable to update your clients and applications to support this new authentication method, you can configure the MySQL server to use mysql_native_password for legacy authentication. For more information about the implications of this change, see caching_sha2_password as the Preferred Authentication Plugin.

If you are installing or upgrading to MySQL 8.0.4 or higher, select one of the following authentication methods:

  • Use Strong Password Encryption for Authentication (RECOMMENDED)

    MySQL 8.0 supports a new authentication based on improved, stronger SHA256-based password methods. It is recommended that all new MySQL server installations use this method going forward.

    Important

    The caching_sha2_password authentication plugin on the server requires new versions of connectors and clients, which add support for the new MySQL 8.0 default authentication.

  • Use Legacy Authentication Method (Retain MySQL 5.x Compatibility)

    Using the old MySQL 5.x legacy authentication method should be considered only in the following cases:

    • Applications cannot be updated to use MySQL 8.0 connectors and drivers.

    • Recompilation of an existing application is not feasible.

    • An updated, language-specific connector or driver is not available yet.

2.3.3.3.1.4 Accounts and Roles
  • Root Account Password

    Assigning a root password is required and you will be asked for it when performing other MySQL Installer operations. Password strength is evaluated when you repeat the password in the box provided. For descriptive information regarding password requirements or status, move your mouse pointer over the information icon () when it appears.

  • MySQL User Accounts (Optional)

    Click Add User or Edit User to create or modify MySQL user accounts with predefined roles. Next, enter the required account credentials:

    • User Name: MySQL user names can be up to 32 characters long.

    • Host: Select localhost for local connections only or <All Hosts (%)> when remote connections to the server are required.

    • Role: Each predefined role, such as DB Admin, is configured with its own set of privileges. For example, the DB Admin role has more privileges than the DB Designer role. The Role drop-down list contains a description of each role.

    • Password: Password strength assessment is performed while you type the password. Passwords must be confirmed. MySQL permits a blank or empty password (considered to be insecure).

    MySQL Installer Commercial Release Only:  MySQL Enterprise Edition for Windows, a commercial product, also supports an authentication method that performs external authentication on Windows. Accounts authenticated by the Windows operating system can access the MySQL server without providing an additional password.

    To create a new MySQL account that uses Windows authentication, enter the user name and then select a value for Host and Role. Click Windows authentication to enable the authentication_windows plugin. In the Windows Security Tokens area, enter a token for each Windows user (or group) who can authenticate with the MySQL user name. MySQL accounts can include security tokens for both local Windows users and Windows users that belong to a domain. Multiple security tokens are separated by the semicolon character (;) and use the following format for local and domain accounts:

    • Local account

      Enter the simple Windows user name as the security token for each local user or group; for example, finley;jeffrey;admin.

    • Domain account

      Use standard Windows syntax (domain\domainuser) or MySQL syntax (domain\\domainuser) to enter Windows domain users and groups.

      For domain accounts, you may need to use the credentials of an administrator within the domain if the account running MySQL Installer lacks the permissions to query the Active Directory. If this is the case, select Validate Active Directory users with to activate the domain administrator credentials.

    Windows authentication permits you to test all of the security tokens each time you add or modify a token. Click Test Security Tokens to validate (or revalidate) each token. Invalid tokens generate a descriptive error message along with a red X icon and red token text. When all tokens resolve as valid (green text without an X icon), you can click OK to save the changes.

2.3.3.3.1.5 Windows Service

On the Windows platform, MySQL server can run as a named service managed by the operating system and be configured to start up automatically when Windows starts. Alternatively, you can configure MySQL server to run as an executable program that requires manual configuration.

  • Configure MySQL server as a Windows service (Selected by default.)

    When the default configuration option is selected, you can also select the following:

    • Start the MySQL Server at System Startup

      When selected (default), the service startup type is set to Automatic; otherwise, the startup type is set to Manual.

    • Run Windows Service as

      When Standard System Account is selected (default), the service logs on as Network Service.

      The Custom User option must have privileges to log on to Microsoft Windows as a service. The Next button will be disabled until this user is configured with the required privileges.

      A custom user account is configured in Windows by searching for "local security policy" in the Start menu. In the Local Security Policy window, select Local Policies, User Rights Assignment, and then Log On As A Service to open the property dialog. Click Add User or Group to add the custom user and then click OK in each dialog to save the changes.

  • Deselect the Windows Service option

2.3.3.3.1.6 Logging Options

This step is available if the Show Advanced Configuration check box was selected during the Type and Networking step. To enable this step now, click Back to return to the Type and Networking step and select the check box.

Advanced configuration options are related to the following MySQL log files:

Note

The binary log is enabled by default for MySQL 5.7 and higher.

2.3.3.3.1.7 Advanced Options

This step is available if the Show Advanced Configuration check box was selected during the Type and Networking step. To enable this step now, click Back to return to the Type and Networking step and select the check box.

The advanced-configuration options include:

  • Server ID

    Set the unique identifier used in a replication topology. If binary logging is enabled, you must specify a server ID. The default ID value depends on the server version. For more information, see the description of the --server-id option.

    Tip

    If you specified an ID for a server instance of an InnoDB cluster, then MySQL Installer adjusts the ID (shown on this page) to match the previous identifier.

  • Table Names Case

    You can set the following options during the initial and subsequent configuration the server. For the MySQL 8.0 release series, these options apply only to the initial configuration of the server.

    • Lower Case

      Sets the lower_case_table_names option value to 1 (default), in which table names are stored in lowercase on disk and comparisons are not case sensitive.

    • Preserve Given Case

      Sets the lower_case_table_names option value to 2, in which table names are stored as given but compared in lowercase.

2.3.3.3.1.8 Apply Server Configuration

All configuration settings are applied to the MySQL server when you click Execute. Use the Configuration Steps tab to follow the progress of each action; the icon for each toggles from white to green (with a check mark) on success. Otherwise, the process stops and displays an error message if an individual action times out. Click the Log tab to view the log.

When the installation completes successfully and you click Finish, MySQL Installer and the installed MySQL products are added to the Microsoft Windows Start menu under the MySQL group. Opening MySQL Installer loads the dashboard where installed MySQL products are listed and other MySQL Installer operations are available.

2.3.3.3.2 MySQL Router Configuration with MySQL Installer

MySQL Installer downloads and installs a suite of tools for developing and managing business-critical applications on Windows. The suite consist of applications, connectors, documentation, and samples.

During the initial setup, choose any predetermined setup type, except Server only, to install the latest GA version of the tools. Use the Custom setup type to install an individual tool or specific version. If MySQL Installer is installed on the host already, use the Add operation to select and install tools from the MySQL Installer dashboard.

MySQL Router Configuration

MySQL Installer provides a configuration wizard that can bootstrap an installed instance of MySQL Router 8.0 or later to route traffic between MySQL applications and an InnoDB cluster. When configured, MySQL Router runs as a local Windows service. For detailed information about using MySQL Router with an InnoDB cluster, see Routing for MySQL InnoDB cluster.

Note

You are prompted to configure MySQL Router after the initial installation and when you reconfigure an installed router explicitly. In contrast, the upgrade operation does not require or prompt you to configure the upgraded product.

To configure MySQL Router, do the following:

  1. Set up InnoDB cluster. For instructions on how to configure a sandbox InnoDB cluster on the local host using MySQL Installer, see Section 2.3.3.3.1.1, “High Availability”.

    For general InnoDB cluster information, see Chapter 21, InnoDB Cluster.

  2. Using MySQL Installer, download and install the MySQL Router application. After the installation finishes, the configuration wizard prompts you for information. Select the Configure MySQL Router for InnoDB cluster check box to begin the configuration and provide the following configuration values:

    • Hostname: Host name of the primary (seed) server in the InnoDB cluster (localhost by default).

    • Port: The port number of the primary (seed) server in the InnoDB cluster (3310 by default).

    • Management User: An administrative user with root-level privileges.

    • Password: The password for the management user.

    • Classic MySQL protocol connections to InnoDB cluster

      Read/Write: Set the first base port number to one that is unused (between 80 and 65532) and the wizard will select the remaining ports for you.

      The figure that follows shows an example of the MySQL Router configuration page, with the first base port number specified as 6446 and the remaining ports set by the wizard as 6447, 6448, and 6449.

    Figure 2.10 MySQL Router Configuration

    Content is described in the surrounding text.

  3. Click Next and then Execute to apply the configuration. Click Finish to close MySQL Installer or return to the MySQL Installer dashboard.

After installing a production cluster with MySQL Router, the root account only exists in the user table as root@localhost (local), instead of root@% (remote). Regardless of where the router or client are located, even if both are located on the same host as the seed server, any connection that passes through the router is viewed by server as being remote, not local. As a result, a connection made to the server using the local host (see the example that follows), does not authenticate.

shell> \c root@localhost:6446

2.3.3.4 MySQL Installer Product Catalog and Dashboard

This section describes the MySQL Installer product catalog and the dashboard.

Product Catalog

The product catalog stores the complete list of released MySQL products for Microsoft Windows that are available to download from MySQL Downloads. By default, and when an Internet connection is present, MySQL Installer updates the catalog daily. You can also update the catalog manually from the dashboard (described later).

An up-to-date catalog performs the following actions:

  • Populates the Available Products pane of the Select Products and Features step. This step appears when you select:

    • The Custom setup type during the initial setup.

    • The Add operation from the dashboard.

  • Identifies when product updates are available for the installed products listed in the dashboard.

The catalog includes all development releases (Pre-Release), general releases (Current GA), and minor releases (Other Releases). Products in the catalog will vary somewhat, depending on the MySQL Installer release that you download.

MySQL Installer Dashboard

The MySQL Installer dashboard is the default view that you see when you start MySQL Installer after the initial setup finishes. If you closed MySQL Installer before the setup was finished, MySQL Installer resumes the initial setup before it displays the dashboard.

Figure 2.11 MySQL Installer Dashboard Elements

Content is described in the surrounding text.

Description of MySQL Installer Dashboard Elements
  1. MySQL Installer dashboard operations provide a variety of actions that apply to installed products or products listed in the catalog. To initiate the following operations, first click the operation link and then select the product or products to manage:

    • Add: This operation opens the Select Products and Features page. From there, you can filter the product in the product catalog, select one or more products to download (as needed), and begin the installation. For hints about using the filter, see Locating Products to Install.

    • Modify: Use this operation to add or remove the features associated with installed products. Features that you can modify vary in complexity by product. When the Program Shortcut check box is selected, the product appears in the Start menu under the MySQL group.

    • Upgrade: This operation loads the Select Products to Upgrade page and populates it with all the upgrade candidates. An installed product can have more than one upgrade version and requires a current product catalog.

      Important server upgrade conditions:

      • MySQL Installer does not permit server upgrades between major release versions or minor release versions, but does permit upgrades within a release series, such as an upgrade from 5.7.18 to 5.7.19.

      • Upgrades between milestone releases (or from a milestone release to a GA release) are not supported. Significant development changes take place in milestone releases and you may encounter compatibility issues or problems starting the server.

      • For upgrades to MySQL 8.0.16 server and higher, a check box enables you to skip the upgrade check and process for system tables, while checking and processing data dictionary tables normally. MySQL Installer does not prompt you with the check box when the previous server upgrade was skipped or when the server was configured as a sandbox InnoDB cluster. This behavior represents a change in how MySQL Server performs an upgrade (see Section 2.11.3, “What the MySQL Upgrade Process Upgrades”) and it alters the sequence of steps that MySQL Installer applies to the configuration process.

        If you select Skip system tables upgrade check and process. (Not recommended), MySQL Installer starts the upgraded server with the --upgrade=MINIMAL server option, which upgrades the data dictionary only. If you stop and then restart the server without the --upgrade=MINIMAL option, the server upgrades the system tables automatically, if needed.

        The following information appears in the Log tab and log file after the upgrade configuration (with system tables skipped) is complete:

        WARNING: The system tables upgrade was skipped after upgrading MySQL Server. The 
        server will be started now with the --upgrade=MINIMAL option, but then each 
        time the server is started it will attempt to upgrade the system tables, unless 
        you modify the Windows service (command line) to add --upgrade=MINIMAL to bypass 
        the upgrade.
        
        FOR THE BEST RESULTS: Run mysqld.exe --upgrade=FORCE on the command line to upgrade
        the system tables manually.
        

      To choose a new product version:

      1. Click Upgrade. Confirm that the check box next to product name in the Upgradeable Products pane has a check mark. Deselect the products that you do not intend to upgrade at this time.

        Note

        For server milestone releases in the same release series, MySQL Installer deselects the server upgrade and displays a warning to indicate that the upgrade is not supported, identifies the risks of continuing, and provides a summary of the steps to perform a logical upgrade manually. You can reselect server upgrade at your own risk. For instructions on how to perform a logical upgrade with a milestone release, see Logical Upgrade.

      2. Click a product in the list to highlight it. This action populates the Upgradeable Versions pane with the details of each available version for the selected product: version number, published date, and a Changes link to open the release notes for that version.

      MySQL Installer upgrades all of the selected products in one action. Click Show Details to view the actions performed by MySQL Installer.

    • Remove This operation opens the Remove Products page and populates it with the MySQL products installed on the host. Select the MySQL products you want to remove (uninstall) and then click Execute to begin the removal process.

      To select products to remove, do one of the following:

      • Select the check box for one or more products.

      • Select the Product check box to select all products.

  2. The Reconfigure link in the Quick Action column next to each installed server loads the current configuration values for the server and then cycles through all configuration steps enabling you to change the options and values. On completion, MySQL Installer stops the server, applies the configuration changes, and restarts the server for you. For a description of each configuration option, see Section 2.3.3.3.1, “MySQL Server Configuration with MySQL Installer”.

    Installed Samples and Examples associated with a specific MySQL server version can be also be reconfigured to apply feature-configuration changes, if any. You must provide credentials with root privileges to reconfigure these items.

  3. The Catalog link enables you to download the latest catalog of MySQL products manually and then to integrate those product changes with MySQL Installer. The catalog-download action does not perform an upgrade of the products already installed on the host. Instead, it returns to the dashboard and displays an arrow icon in the Version column for each installed product that has a newer version. Use the Upgrade operation to install the newer product version.

    You can also use the Catalog link to display the current change history of each product without downloading the new catalog. Select the Do not update at this time check box to view the change history only.

  4. The MySQL Installer About icon () shows the current version of MySQL Installer and general information about MySQL. The version number is located above the Back button.

    Tip

    Always include this version number when reporting a problem with MySQL Installer.

    Click the double arrow () to show a list of links to the latest MySQL product documentation, blogs, webinars, and more.

  5. The MySQL Installer Options icon () includes the following tabs:

    • Product Catalog: Manages the daily automatic catalog updates. By default, catalog updates are scheduled at a fixed hour. When new products or product versions are available, MySQL Installer adds them to the catalog and then displays an arrow icon () next to the version number of installed products listed in the dashboard.

      Use this option to enable or disable automatic catalog updates and to reset the time of day when the MySQL Installer updates the catalog automatically. For specific settings, see the task named ManifestUpdate in the Windows Task Scheduler.

    • Connectivity Settings: Several operations performed by MySQL Installer require internet access. This option enables you to use a default value to validate the connection or to use a different URL, one selected from a list or added by you manually. With the Manual option selected, new URLs can be added and all URLs in the list can be moved or deleted. When the Automatic option is selected, MySQL Installer attempts to connect to each default URL in the list (in order) until a connection is made. If no connection can be made, it raises an error.

Locating Products to Install

MySQL products in the catalog are listed by category: MySQL Servers, Applications, MySQL Connectors, and Documentation. Only the latest GA versions appear in the Available Products pane by default. If you are looking for a pre-release or older version of a product, it may not be visible in the default list.

To change the default product list, click Add on the dashboard to open the Select Products and Features page, and then click Edit to open the filter dialog box (see the figure that follows). Modify the product values and then click Filter.

Figure 2.12 Filter Available Products

Filter by Text, Category, Age, Already Downloaded, and Architecture.

Reset one or more of the following values to filter the list of available products:

  • Text: Filter by text.

  • Category: All Software (default), MySQL Servers, Applications, MySQL Connectors, or Documentation (for samples and documentation).

  • Maturity: Current Bundle (appears initially with the full package only), Pre-Release, Current GA, or Other Releases.

    Note

    The Commercial release of MySQL Installer does not display any MySQL products when you select the Pre-Release age filter. Products in development are available from the Community release of MySQL Installer only.

  • Already Downloaded (the check box is deselected by default).

  • Architecture: Any (default), 32-bit, or 64-bit.

2.3.3.5 MySQLInstallerConsole Reference

MySQLInstallerConsole.exe provides command-line functionality that is similar to MySQL Installer. It is installed when MySQL Installer is initially executed and then available within the MySQL Installer directory. Typically, that is in C:\Program Files (x86)\MySQL\MySQL Installer\, and the console must be executed with administrative privileges.

To use, invoke the command prompt with administrative privileges by choosing Start, Accessories, then right-click on Command Prompt and choose Run as administrator. And from the command line, optionally change the directory to where MySQLInstallerConsole.exe is located:

C:\> cd Program Files (x86)\MySQL\MySQL Installer for Windows
C:\Program Files (x86)\MySQL\MySQL Installer for Windows> MySQLInstallerConsole.exe help
=================== Start Initialization ===================
MySQL Installer is running in Community mode

Attempting to update manifest.
Initializing product requirements
Loading product catalog
Checking for product catalog snippets
Checking for product packages in the bundle
Categorizing product catalog
Finding all installed packages.
Your product catalog was last updated at 11/1/2016 4:10:38 PM
=================== End Initialization ===================

The following commands are available:

Configure - Configures one or more of your installed programs.
Help      - Provides list of available commands.
Install   - Install and configure one or more available MySQL programs.
List      - Provides an interactive way to list all products available.
Modify    - Modifies the features of installed products.
Remove    - Removes one or more products from your system.
Status    - Shows the status of all installed products.
Update    - Update the current product catalog.
Upgrade   - Upgrades one or more of your installed programs.

MySQLInstallerConsole.exe supports the following commands:

Note

Configuration block values that contain a colon (":") must be wrapped in double quotes. For example, installdir="C:\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0".

  • configure [product1]:[setting]=[value]; [product2]:[setting]=[value]; [...]

    Configure one or more MySQL products on your system. Multiple setting=value pairs can be configured for each product.

    Switches include:

    • -showsettings : Displays the available options for the selected product, by passing in the product name after -showsettings.

    • -silent : Disable confirmation prompts.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole configure -showsettings server
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole configure server:port=3307
    
  • help [command]

    Displays a help message with usage examples, and then exits. Pass in an additional command to receive help specific to that command.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole help
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole help install
    
  • install [product]:[features]:[config block]:[config block]:[config block]; [...]

    Install one or more MySQL products on your system. If pre-release products are available, both GA and pre-release products are installed when the value of the -type switch is Developer, Client, or Full. Use the -only_ga_products switch to restrict the product set to GA products only when using these setup types.

    Switches and syntax options include:

    • -only_ga_products : Restricts the product set to include GA products only.

    • -type=[SetupType] : Installs a predefined set of software. The "SetupType" can be one of the following:

      Note

      Non-custom setup types can only be chosen if no other MySQL products are installed.

      • Developer: Installs a complete development environment.

      • Server: Installs a single MySQL server

      • Client: Installs client programs and libraries

      • Full: Installs everything

      • Custom: Installs user selected products. This is the default option.

    • -showsettings : Displays the available options for the selected product, by passing in the product name after -showsettings.

    • -silent : Disable confirmation prompts.

    • [config block]: One or more configuration blocks can be specified. Each configuration block is a semicolon separated list of key value pairs. A block can include either a "config" or "user" type key, where "config" is the default type if one is not defined.

      Configuration block values that contain a colon character (:) must be wrapped in double quotes. For example, installdir="C:\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0".

      Only one "config" type block can be defined per product. A "user" block should be defined for each user that should be created during the product's installation.

      Note

      Adding users is not supported when a product is being reconfigured.

    • [feature]: The feature block is a semicolon separated list of features, or an asterisk character (*) to select all features.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole install server;5.6.25:*:port=3307;serverid=2:type=user;username=foo;password=bar;role=DBManager
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole install server;5.6.25;x64 -silent
    

    An example that passes in additional configuration blocks, separated by ^ to fit:

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole install server;5.6.25;x64:*:type=config;openfirewall=true; ^
              generallog=true;binlog=true;serverid=3306;enable_tcpip=true;port=3306;rootpasswd=pass; ^
              installdir="C:\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6":type=user;datadir="C:\MySQL\data";username=foo;password=bar;role=DBManager
    
  • list

    Lists an interactive console where all of the available MySQL products can be searched. Execute MySQLInstallerConsole list to launch the console, and enter in a substring to search.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole list
    
  • modify [product1:-removelist|+addlist] [product2:-removelist|+addlist] [...]

    Modifies or displays features of a previously installed MySQL product.

    • -silent : Disable confirmation prompts.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole modify server
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole modify server:+documentation
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole modify server:-debug
    
  • remove [product1] [product2] [...]

    Removes one ore more products from your system.

    • * : Pass in * to remove all of the MySQL products.

    • -continue : Continue the operation even if an error occurs.

    • -silent : Disable confirmation prompts.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole remove *
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole remove server
    
  • status

    Provides a quick overview of the MySQL products that are installed on the system. Information includes product name and version, architecture, date installed, and install location.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole status
    
  • update

    Downloads the latest MySQL product catalog to your system. On success, the download catalog will be applied the next time either MySQLInstaller or MySQLInstallerConsole is executed.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole update
    
    Note

    The Automatic Catalog Update GUI option executes this command from the Windows Task Scheduler.

  • upgrade [product1:version] [product2:version] [...]

    Upgrades one or more products on your system. Syntax options include:

    • * : Pass in * to upgrade all products to the latest version, or pass in specific products.

    • ! : Pass in ! as a version number to upgrade the MySQL product to its latest version.

    • -silent : Disable confirmation prompts.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole upgrade *
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole upgrade workbench:6.3.5
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole upgrade workbench:!
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole upgrade workbench:6.3.5 excel:1.3.2
    

2.3.4 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall ZIP Archive

Users who are installing from the noinstall package can use the instructions in this section to manually install MySQL. The process for installing MySQL from a ZIP Archive package is as follows:

  1. Extract the main archive to the desired install directory

    Optional: also extract the debug-test archive if you plan to execute the MySQL benchmark and test suite

  2. Create an option file

  3. Choose a MySQL server type

  4. Initialize MySQL

  5. Start the MySQL server

  6. Secure the default user accounts

This process is described in the sections that follow.

2.3.4.1 Extracting the Install Archive

To install MySQL manually, do the following:

  1. If you are upgrading from a previous version please refer to Section 2.11.10, “Upgrading MySQL on Windows”, before beginning the upgrade process.

  2. Make sure that you are logged in as a user with administrator privileges.

  3. Choose an installation location. Traditionally, the MySQL server is installed in C:\mysql. If you do not install MySQL at C:\mysql, you must specify the path to the install directory during startup or in an option file. See Section 2.3.4.2, “Creating an Option File”.

    Note

    The MySQL Installer installs MySQL under C:\Program Files\MySQL.

  4. Extract the install archive to the chosen installation location using your preferred file-compression tool. Some tools may extract the archive to a folder within your chosen installation location. If this occurs, you can move the contents of the subfolder into the chosen installation location.

2.3.4.2 Creating an Option File

If you need to specify startup options when you run the server, you can indicate them on the command line or place them in an option file. For options that are used every time the server starts, you may find it most convenient to use an option file to specify your MySQL configuration. This is particularly true under the following circumstances:

  • The installation or data directory locations are different from the default locations (C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0 and C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\data).

  • You need to tune the server settings, such as memory, cache, or InnoDB configuration information.

When the MySQL server starts on Windows, it looks for option files in several locations, such as the Windows directory, C:\, and the MySQL installation directory (for the full list of locations, see Section 4.2.2.2, “Using Option Files”). The Windows directory typically is named something like C:\WINDOWS. You can determine its exact location from the value of the WINDIR environment variable using the following command:

C:\> echo %WINDIR%

MySQL looks for options in each location first in the my.ini file, and then in the my.cnf file. However, to avoid confusion, it is best if you use only one file. If your PC uses a boot loader where C: is not the boot drive, your only option is to use the my.ini file. Whichever option file you use, it must be a plain text file.

Note

When using the MySQL Installer to install MySQL Server, it will create the my.ini at the default location, and the user executing MySQL Installer is granted full permissions to this new my.ini file.

In other words, be sure that the MySQL Server user has permission to read the my.ini file.

You can also make use of the example option files included with your MySQL distribution; see Section 5.1.2, “Server Configuration Defaults”.

An option file can be created and modified with any text editor, such as Notepad. For example, if MySQL is installed in E:\mysql and the data directory is in E:\mydata\data, you can create an option file containing a [mysqld] section to specify values for the basedir and datadir options:

[mysqld]
# set basedir to your installation path
basedir=E:/mysql
# set datadir to the location of your data directory
datadir=E:/mydata/data

Microsoft Windows path names are specified in option files using (forward) slashes rather than backslashes. If you do use backslashes, double them:

[mysqld]
# set basedir to your installation path
basedir=E:\\mysql
# set datadir to the location of your data directory
datadir=E:\\mydata\\data

The rules for use of backslash in option file values are given in Section 4.2.2.2, “Using Option Files”.

The ZIP archive does not include a data directory. To initialize a MySQL installation by creating the data directory and populating the tables in the mysql system database, initialize MySQL using either --initialize or --initialize-insecure. For additional information, see Section 2.10.1, “Initializing the Data Directory”.

If you would like to use a data directory in a different location, you should copy the entire contents of the data directory to the new location. For example, if you want to use E:\mydata as the data directory instead, you must do two things:

  1. Move the entire data directory and all of its contents from the default location (for example C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\data) to E:\mydata.

  2. Use a --datadir option to specify the new data directory location each time you start the server.

2.3.4.3 Selecting a MySQL Server Type

The following table shows the available servers for Windows in MySQL 8.0.

Binary Description
mysqld Optimized binary with named-pipe support
mysqld-debug Like mysqld, but compiled with full debugging and automatic memory allocation checking

All of the preceding binaries are optimized for modern Intel processors, but should work on any Intel i386-class or higher processor.

Each of the servers in a distribution support the same set of storage engines. The SHOW ENGINES statement displays which engines a given server supports.

All Windows MySQL 8.0 servers have support for symbolic linking of database directories.

MySQL supports TCP/IP on all Windows platforms. MySQL servers on Windows also support named pipes, if you start the server with the named_pipe system variable enabled. It is necessary to enable this variable explicitly because some users have experienced problems with shutting down the MySQL server when named pipes were used. The default is to use TCP/IP regardless of platform because named pipes are slower than TCP/IP in many Windows configurations.

2.3.4.4 Initializing the Data Directory

If you installed MySQL using the noinstall package, no data directory is included. To initialize the data directory, use the instructions at Section 2.10.1, “Initializing the Data Directory”.

2.3.4.5 Starting the Server for the First Time

This section gives a general overview of starting the MySQL server. The following sections provide more specific information for starting the MySQL server from the command line or as a Windows service.

The information here applies primarily if you installed MySQL using the noinstall version, or if you wish to configure and test MySQL manually rather than with the MySQL Installer.

The examples in these sections assume that MySQL is installed under the default location of C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0. Adjust the path names shown in the examples if you have MySQL installed in a different location.

Clients have two options. They can use TCP/IP, or they can use a named pipe if the server supports named-pipe connections.

MySQL for Windows also supports shared-memory connections if the server is started with the shared_memory system variable enabled. Clients can connect through shared memory by using the --protocol=MEMORY option.

For information about which server binary to run, see Section 2.3.4.3, “Selecting a MySQL Server Type”.

Testing is best done from a command prompt in a console window (or DOS window). In this way you can have the server display status messages in the window where they are easy to see. If something is wrong with your configuration, these messages make it easier for you to identify and fix any problems.

Note

The database must be initialized before MySQL can be started. For additional information about the initialization process, see Section 2.10.1, “Initializing the Data Directory”.

To start the server, enter this command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin\mysqld" --console

For a server that includes InnoDB support, you should see the messages similar to those following as it starts (the path names and sizes may differ):

InnoDB: The first specified datafile c:\ibdata\ibdata1 did not exist:
InnoDB: a new database to be created!
InnoDB: Setting file c:\ibdata\ibdata1 size to 209715200
InnoDB: Database physically writes the file full: wait...
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile0 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile0 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile1 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile1 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile2 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile2 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer not found: creating new
InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer created
InnoDB: creating foreign key constraint system tables
InnoDB: foreign key constraint system tables created
011024 10:58:25  InnoDB: Started

When the server finishes its startup sequence, you should see something like this, which indicates that the server is ready to service client connections:

mysqld: ready for connections
Version: '8.0.19'  socket: ''  port: 3306

The server continues to write to the console any further diagnostic output it produces. You can open a new console window in which to run client programs.

If you omit the --console option, the server writes diagnostic output to the error log in the data directory (C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\data by default). The error log is the file with the .err extension, and may be set using the --log-error option.

Note

The initial root account in the MySQL grant tables has no password. After starting the server, you should set up a password for it using the instructions in Section 2.10.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Account”.

2.3.4.6 Starting MySQL from the Windows Command Line

The MySQL server can be started manually from the command line. This can be done on any version of Windows.

To start the mysqld server from the command line, you should start a console window (or DOS window) and enter this command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin\mysqld"

The path to mysqld may vary depending on the install location of MySQL on your system.

You can stop the MySQL server by executing this command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin\mysqladmin" -u root shutdown
Note

If the MySQL root user account has a password, you need to invoke mysqladmin with the -p option and supply the password when prompted.

This command invokes the MySQL administrative utility mysqladmin to connect to the server and tell it to shut down. The command connects as the MySQL root user, which is the default administrative account in the MySQL grant system.

Note

Users in the MySQL grant system are wholly independent from any operating system users under Microsoft Windows.

If mysqld doesn't start, check the error log to see whether the server wrote any messages there to indicate the cause of the problem. By default, the error log is located in the C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\data directory. It is the file with a suffix of .err, or may be specified by passing in the --log-error option. Alternatively, you can try to start the server with the --console option; in this case, the server may display some useful information on the screen that will help solve the problem.

The last option is to start mysqld with the --standalone and --debug options. In this case, mysqld writes a log file C:\mysqld.trace that should contain the reason why mysqld doesn't start. See Section 29.5.4, “The DBUG Package”.

Use mysqld --verbose --help to display all the options that mysqld supports.

2.3.4.7 Customizing the PATH for MySQL Tools

Warning

You must exercise great care when editing your system PATH by hand; accidental deletion or modification of any portion of the existing PATH value can leave you with a malfunctioning or even unusable system.

To make it easier to invoke MySQL programs, you can add the path name of the MySQL bin directory to your Windows system PATH environment variable:

  • On the Windows desktop, right-click the My Computer icon, and select Properties.

  • Next select the Advanced tab from the System Properties menu that appears, and click the Environment Variables button.

  • Under System Variables, select Path, and then click the Edit button. The Edit System Variable dialogue should appear.

  • Place your cursor at the end of the text appearing in the space marked Variable Value. (Use the End key to ensure that your cursor is positioned at the very end of the text in this space.) Then enter the complete path name of your MySQL bin directory (for example, C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin)

    Note

    There must be a semicolon separating this path from any values present in this field.

    Dismiss this dialogue, and each dialogue in turn, by clicking OK until all of the dialogues that were opened have been dismissed. The new PATH value should now be available to any new command shell you open, allowing you to invoke any MySQL executable program by typing its name at the DOS prompt from any directory on the system, without having to supply the path. This includes the servers, the mysql client, and all MySQL command-line utilities such as mysqladmin and mysqldump.

You should not add the MySQL bin directory to your Windows PATH if you are running multiple MySQL servers on the same machine.

2.3.4.8 Starting MySQL as a Windows Service

On Windows, the recommended way to run MySQL is to install it as a Windows service, so that MySQL starts and stops automatically when Windows starts and stops. A MySQL server installed as a service can also be controlled from the command line using NET commands, or with the graphical Services utility. Generally, to install MySQL as a Windows service you should be logged in using an account that has administrator rights.

The Services utility (the Windows Service Control Manager) can be found in the Windows Control Panel. To avoid conflicts, it is advisable to close the Services utility while performing server installation or removal operations from the command line.

Installing the service

Before installing MySQL as a Windows service, you should first stop the current server if it is running by using the following command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin\mysqladmin"
          -u root shutdown
Note

If the MySQL root user account has a password, you need to invoke mysqladmin with the -p option and supply the password when prompted.

This command invokes the MySQL administrative utility mysqladmin to connect to the server and tell it to shut down. The command connects as the MySQL root user, which is the default administrative account in the MySQL grant system.

Note

Users in the MySQL grant system are wholly independent from any operating system users under Windows.

Install the server as a service using this command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin\mysqld" --install

The service-installation command does not start the server. Instructions for that are given later in this section.

To make it easier to invoke MySQL programs, you can add the path name of the MySQL bin directory to your Windows system PATH environment variable:

  • On the Windows desktop, right-click the My Computer icon, and select Properties.

  • Next select the Advanced tab from the System Properties menu that appears, and click the Environment Variables button.

  • Under System Variables, select Path, and then click the Edit button. The Edit System Variable dialogue should appear.

  • Place your cursor at the end of the text appearing in the space marked Variable Value. (Use the End key to ensure that your cursor is positioned at the very end of the text in this space.) Then enter the complete path name of your MySQL bin directory (for example, C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin), and there should be a semicolon separating this path from any values present in this field. Dismiss this dialogue, and each dialogue in turn, by clicking OK until all of the dialogues that were opened have been dismissed. You should now be able to invoke any MySQL executable program by typing its name at the DOS prompt from any directory on the system, without having to supply the path. This includes the servers, the mysql client, and all MySQL command-line utilities such as mysqladmin and mysqldump.

    You should not add the MySQL bin directory to your Windows PATH if you are running multiple MySQL servers on the same machine.

Warning

You must exercise great care when editing your system PATH by hand; accidental deletion or modification of any portion of the existing PATH value can leave you with a malfunctioning or even unusable system.

The following additional arguments can be used when installing the service:

  • You can specify a service name immediately following the --install option. The default service name is MySQL.

  • If a service name is given, it can be followed by a single option. By convention, this should be --defaults-file=file_name to specify the name of an option file from which the server should read options when it starts.

    The use of a single option other than --defaults-file is possible but discouraged. --defaults-file is more flexible because it enables you to specify multiple startup options for the server by placing them in the named option file.

  • You can also specify a --local-service option following the service name. This causes the server to run using the LocalService Windows account that has limited system privileges. If both --defaults-file and --local-service are given following the service name, they can be in any order.

For a MySQL server that is installed as a Windows service, the following rules determine the service name and option files that the server uses:

  • If the service-installation command specifies no service name or the default service name (MySQL) following the --install option, the server uses the service name of MySQL and reads options from the [mysqld] group in the standard option files.

  • If the service-installation command specifies a service name other than MySQL following the --install option, the server uses that service name. It reads options from the [mysqld] group and the group that has the same name as the service in the standard option files. This enables you to use the [mysqld] group for options that should be used by all MySQL services, and an option group with the service name for use by the server installed with that service name.

  • If the service-installation command specifies a --defaults-file option after the service name, the server reads options the same way as described in the previous item, except that it reads options only from the named file and ignores the standard option files.

As a more complex example, consider the following command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin\mysqld"
          --install MySQL --defaults-file=C:\my-opts.cnf

Here, the default service name (MySQL) is given after the --install option. If no --defaults-file option had been given, this command would have the effect of causing the server to read the [mysqld] group from the standard option files. However, because the --defaults-file option is present, the server reads options from the [mysqld] option group, and only from the named file.

Note

On Windows, if the server is started with the --defaults-file and --install options, --install must be first. Otherwise, mysqld.exe will attempt to start the MySQL server.

You can also specify options as Start parameters in the Windows Services utility before you start the MySQL service.

Finally, before trying to start the MySQL service, make sure the user variables %TEMP% and %TMP% (and also %TMPDIR%, if it has ever been set) for the operating system user who is to run the service are pointing to a folder to which the user has write access. The default user for running the MySQL service is LocalSystem, and the default value for its %TEMP% and %TMP% is C:\Windows\Temp, a directory LocalSystem has write access to by default. However, if there are any changes to that default setup (for example, changes to the user who runs the service or to the mentioned user variables, or the --tmpdir option has been used to put the temporary directory somewhere else), the MySQL service might fail to run because write access to the temporary directory has not been granted to the proper user.

Starting the service

After a MySQL server instance has been installed as a service, Windows starts the service automatically whenever Windows starts. The service also can be started immediately from the Services utility, or by using an sc start mysqld_service_name or NET START mysqld_service_name command. SC and NET commands are not case-sensitive.

When run as a service, mysqld has no access to a console window, so no messages can be seen there. If mysqld does not start, check the error log to see whether the server wrote any messages there to indicate the cause of the problem. The error log is located in the MySQL data directory (for example, C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\data). It is the file with a suffix of .err.

When a MySQL server has been installed as a service, and the service is running, Windows stops the service automatically when Windows shuts down. The server also can be stopped manually using the Services utility, the sc stop mysqld_service_name command, the NET START mysqld_service_name command, or the mysqladmin shutdown command.

You also have the choice of installing the server as a manual service if you do not wish for the service to be started automatically during the boot process. To do this, use the --install-manual option rather than the --install option:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin\mysqld" --install-manual
Removing the service

To remove a server that is installed as a service, first stop it if it is running by executing SC STOP mysqld_service_name or NET STOP mysqld_service_name. Then use SC DELETE mysqld_service_name to remove it:

C:\> SC DELETE mysql

Alternatively, use the mysqld --remove option to remove the service.

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin\mysqld" --remove

If mysqld is not running as a service, you can start it from the command line. For instructions, see Section 2.3.4.6, “Starting MySQL from the Windows Command Line”.

If you encounter difficulties during installation, see Section 2.3.5, “Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation”.

For more information about stopping or removing a Windows service, see Section 5.8.2.2, “Starting Multiple MySQL Instances as Windows Services”.

2.3.4.9 Testing The MySQL Installation

You can test whether the MySQL server is working by executing any of the following commands:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin\mysqlshow"
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin\mysqlshow" -u root mysql
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin\mysqladmin" version status proc
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin\mysql" test

If mysqld is slow to respond to TCP/IP connections from client programs, there is probably a problem with your DNS. In this case, start mysqld with the --skip-name-resolve option and use only localhost and IP addresses in the Host column of the MySQL grant tables. (Be sure that an account exists that specifies an IP address or you may not be able to connect.)

You can force a MySQL client to use a named-pipe connection rather than TCP/IP by specifying the --pipe or --protocol=PIPE option, or by specifying . (period) as the host name. Use the --socket option to specify the name of the pipe if you do not want to use the default pipe name.

If you have set a password for the root account, deleted the anonymous account, or created a new user account, then to connect to the MySQL server you must use the appropriate -u and -p options with the commands shown previously. See Section 4.2.4, “Connecting to the MySQL Server Using Command Options”.

For more information about mysqlshow, see Section 4.5.7, “mysqlshow — Display Database, Table, and Column Information”.

2.3.5 Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation

When installing and running MySQL for the first time, you may encounter certain errors that prevent the MySQL server from starting. This section helps you diagnose and correct some of these errors.

Your first resource when troubleshooting server issues is the error log. The MySQL server uses the error log to record information relevant to the error that prevents the server from starting. The error log is located in the data directory specified in your my.ini file. The default data directory location is C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\data, or C:\ProgramData\Mysql on Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008. The C:\ProgramData directory is hidden by default. You need to change your folder options to see the directory and contents. For more information on the error log and understanding the content, see Section 5.4.2, “The Error Log”.

For information regarding possible errors, also consult the console messages displayed when the MySQL service is starting. Use the SC START mysqld_service_name or NET START mysqld_service_name command from the command line after installing mysqld as a service to see any error messages regarding the starting of the MySQL server as a service. See Section 2.3.4.8, “Starting MySQL as a Windows Service”.

The following examples show other common error messages you might encounter when installing MySQL and starting the server for the first time:

  • If the MySQL server cannot find the mysql privileges database or other critical files, it displays these messages:

    System error 1067 has occurred.
    Fatal error: Can't open and lock privilege tables:
    Table 'mysql.user' doesn't exist
    

    These messages often occur when the MySQL base or data directories are installed in different locations than the default locations (C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0 and C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\data, respectively).

    This situation can occur when MySQL is upgraded and installed to a new location, but the configuration file is not updated to reflect the new location. In addition, old and new configuration files might conflict. Be sure to delete or rename any old configuration files when upgrading MySQL.

    If you have installed MySQL to a directory other than C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0, ensure that the MySQL server is aware of this through the use of a configuration (my.ini) file. Put the my.ini file in your Windows directory, typically C:\WINDOWS. To determine its exact location from the value of the WINDIR environment variable, issue the following command from the command prompt:

    C:\> echo %WINDIR%
    

    You can create or modify an option file with any text editor, such as Notepad. For example, if MySQL is installed in E:\mysql and the data directory is D:\MySQLdata, you can create the option file and set up a [mysqld] section to specify values for the basedir and datadir options:

    [mysqld]
    # set basedir to your installation path
    basedir=E:/mysql
    # set datadir to the location of your data directory
    datadir=D:/MySQLdata
    

    Microsoft Windows path names are specified in option files using (forward) slashes rather than backslashes. If you do use backslashes, double them:

    [mysqld]
    # set basedir to your installation path
    basedir=C:\\Program Files\\MySQL\\MySQL Server 8.0
    # set datadir to the location of your data directory
    datadir=D:\\MySQLdata
    

    The rules for use of backslash in option file values are given in Section 4.2.2.2, “Using Option Files”.

    If you change the datadir value in your MySQL configuration file, you must move the contents of the existing MySQL data directory before restarting the MySQL server.

    See Section 2.3.4.2, “Creating an Option File”.

  • If you reinstall or upgrade MySQL without first stopping and removing the existing MySQL service and install MySQL using the MySQL Installer, you might see this error:

    Error: Cannot create Windows service for MySql. Error: 0
    

    This occurs when the Configuration Wizard tries to install the service and finds an existing service with the same name.

    One solution to this problem is to choose a service name other than mysql when using the configuration wizard. This enables the new service to be installed correctly, but leaves the outdated service in place. Although this is harmless, it is best to remove old services that are no longer in use.

    To permanently remove the old mysql service, execute the following command as a user with administrative privileges, on the command line:

    C:\> SC DELETE mysql
    [SC] DeleteService SUCCESS
    

    If the SC utility is not available for your version of Windows, download the delsrv utility from http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/techinfo/reskit/tools/existing/delsrv-o.asp and use the delsrv mysql syntax.

2.3.6 Windows Postinstallation Procedures

GUI tools exist that perform most of the tasks described in this section, including:

If necessary, initialize the data directory and create the MySQL grant tables. Windows installation operations performed by MySQL Installer initialize the data directory automatically. For installation from a ZIP Archive package, initialize the data directory as described at Section 2.10.1, “Initializing the Data Directory”.

Regarding passwords, if you installed MySQL using the MySQL Installer, you may have already assigned a password to the initial root account. (See Section 2.3.3, “MySQL Installer for Windows”.) Otherwise, use the password-assignment procedure given in Section 2.10.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Account”.

Before assigning a password, you might want to try running some client programs to make sure that you can connect to the server and that it is operating properly. Make sure that the server is running (see Section 2.3.4.5, “Starting the Server for the First Time”). You can also set up a MySQL service that runs automatically when Windows starts (see Section 2.3.4.8, “Starting MySQL as a Windows Service”).

These instructions assume that your current location is the MySQL installation directory and that it has a bin subdirectory containing the MySQL programs used here. If that is not true, adjust the command path names accordingly.

If you installed MySQL using MySQL Installer (see Section 2.3.3, “MySQL Installer for Windows”), the default installation directory is C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0:

C:\> cd "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0"

A common installation location for installation from a ZIP archive is C:\mysql:

C:\> cd C:\mysql

Alternatively, add the bin directory to your PATH environment variable setting. That enables your command interpreter to find MySQL programs properly, so that you can run a program by typing only its name, not its path name. See Section 2.3.4.7, “Customizing the PATH for MySQL Tools”.

With the server running, issue the following commands to verify that you can retrieve information from the server. The output should be similar to that shown here.

Use mysqlshow to see what databases exist:

C:\> bin\mysqlshow
+--------------------+
|     Databases      |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| sys                |
+--------------------+

The list of installed databases may vary, but always includes at least mysql and information_schema.

The preceding command (and commands for other MySQL programs such as mysql) may not work if the correct MySQL account does not exist. For example, the program may fail with an error, or you may not be able to view all databases. If you install MySQL using MySQL Installer, the root user is created automatically with the password you supplied. In this case, you should use the -u root and -p options. (You must use those options if you have already secured the initial MySQL accounts.) With -p, the client program prompts for the root password. For example:

C:\> bin\mysqlshow -u root -p
Enter password: (enter root password here)
+--------------------+
|     Databases      |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| sys                |
+--------------------+

If you specify a database name, mysqlshow displays a list of the tables within the database:

C:\> bin\mysqlshow mysql
Database: mysql
+---------------------------+
|          Tables           |
+---------------------------+
| columns_priv              |
| component                 |
| db                        |
| default_roles             |
| engine_cost               |
| func                      |
| general_log               |
| global_grants             |
| gtid_executed             |
| help_category             |
| help_keyword              |
| help_relation             |
| help_topic                |
| innodb_index_stats        |
| innodb_table_stats        |
| ndb_binlog_index          |
| password_history          |
| plugin                    |
| procs_priv                |
| proxies_priv              |
| role_edges                |
| server_cost               |
| servers                   |
| slave_master_info         |
| slave_relay_log_info      |
| slave_worker_info         |
| slow_log                  |
| tables_priv               |
| time_zone                 |
| time_zone_leap_second     |
| time_zone_name            |
| time_zone_transition      |
| time_zone_transition_type |
| user                      |
+---------------------------+

Use the mysql program to select information from a table in the mysql database:

C:\> bin\mysql -e "SELECT User, Host, plugin FROM mysql.user" mysql
+------+-----------+-----------------------+
| User | Host      | plugin                |
+------+-----------+-----------------------+
| root | localhost | caching_sha2_password |
+------+-----------+-----------------------+

For more information about mysql and mysqlshow, see Section 4.5.1, “mysql — The MySQL Command-Line Client”, and Section 4.5.7, “mysqlshow — Display Database, Table, and Column Information”.

2.4 Installing MySQL on macOS

For a list of macOS versions that the MySQL server supports, see https://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html.

MySQL for macOS is available in a number of different forms:

For additional information on using MySQL on macOS, see Section 2.4.1, “General Notes on Installing MySQL on macOS”.

2.4.1 General Notes on Installing MySQL on macOS

You should keep the following issues and notes in mind:

  • Other MySQL installations: The installation procedure does not recognize MySQL installations by package managers such as Homebrew. The installation and upgrade process is for MySQL packages provided by us. If other installations are present, then consider stopping them before executing this installer to avoid port conflicts.

    Homebrew: For example, if you installed MySQL Server using Homebrew to its default location then the MySQL installer installs to a different location and won't upgrade the version from Homebrew. In this scenario you would end up with multiple MySQL installations that, by default, attempt to use the same ports. Stop the other MySQL Server instances before running this installer, such as executing brew services stop mysql to stop the Homebrew's MySQL service.

  • Launchd: A launchd daemon is installed that alters MySQL configuration options. Consider editing it if needed, see the documentation below for additional information. Also, macOS 10.10 removed startup item support in favor of launchd daemons. The optional MySQL preference pane under macOS System Preferences uses the launchd daemon.

  • Users: You may need (or want) to create a specific mysql user to own the MySQL directory and data. You can do this through the Directory Utility, and the mysql user should already exist. For use in single user mode, an entry for _mysql (note the underscore prefix) should already exist within the system /etc/passwd file.

  • Data: Because the MySQL package installer installs the MySQL contents into a version and platform specific directory, you can use this to upgrade and migrate your database between versions. You will need to either copy the data directory from the old version to the new version, or alternatively specify an alternative datadir value to set location of the data directory. By default, the MySQL directories are installed under /usr/local/.

  • Aliases: You might want to add aliases to your shell's resource file to make it easier to access commonly used programs such as mysql and mysqladmin from the command line. The syntax for bash is:

    alias mysql=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql
    alias mysqladmin=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin
    

    For tcsh, use:

    alias mysql /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql
    alias mysqladmin /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin
    

    Even better, add /usr/local/mysql/bin to your PATH environment variable. You can do this by modifying the appropriate startup file for your shell. For more information, see Section 4.2.1, “Invoking MySQL Programs”.

  • Removing: After you have copied over the MySQL database files from the previous installation and have successfully started the new server, you should consider removing the old installation files to save disk space. Additionally, you should also remove older versions of the Package Receipt directories located in /Library/Receipts/mysql-VERSION.pkg.

  • Legacy: Prior to OS X 10.7, MySQL server was bundled with OS X Server.

2.4.2 Installing MySQL on macOS Using Native Packages

The package is located inside a disk image (.dmg) file that you first need to mount by double-clicking its icon in the Finder. It should then mount the image and display its contents.

Note

Before proceeding with the installation, be sure to stop all running MySQL server instances by using either the MySQL Manager Application (on macOS Server), the preference pane, or mysqladmin shutdown on the command line.

To install MySQL using the package installer:

  1. Download the disk image (.dmg) file (the community version is available here) that contains the MySQL package installer. Double-click the file to mount the disk image and see its contents.

    Double-click the MySQL installer package from the disk. It is named according to the version of MySQL you have downloaded. For example, for MySQL server 8.0.19 it might be named mysql-8.0.19-osx-10.13-x86_64.pkg.

  2. The initial wizard introduction screen references the MySQL server version to install. Click Continue to begin the installation.

    The MySQL community edition shows a copy of the relevant GNU General Public License. Click Continue and then Agree to continue.

  3. From the Installation Type page you can either click Install to execute the installation wizard using all defaults, click Customize to alter which components to install (MySQL server, MySQL Test, Preference Pane, Launchd Support -- all but MySQL Test are enabled by default).

    Note

    Although the Change Install Location option is visible, the installation location cannot be changed.

    Figure 2.13 MySQL Package Installer Wizard: Installation Type

    Content is described in the surrounding text.

    Figure 2.14 MySQL Package Installer Wizard: Customize

    Customize shows three package name options: MySQL Server, MySQL Test, Preference Pane, and Launchd Support. All three options are checked.

  4. Click Install to install MySQL Server. The installation process ends here if upgrading a current MySQL Server installation, otherwise follow the wizard's additional configuration steps for your new MySQL Server installation.

  5. After a successful new MySQL Server installation, complete the configuration steps by choosing the default encryption type for passwords, define the root password, and also enable (or disable) MySQL server at startup.

  6. The default MySQL 8.0 password mechanism is caching_sha2_password (Strong), and this step allows you to change it to mysql_native_password (Legacy).

    Figure 2.15 MySQL Package Installer Wizard: Choose a Password Encryption Type

    Most content is described in the surrounding text. The installer refers to caching_sha2_password as "Use Strong Password Encryption" and mysql_native_password as a "Use Legacy Password Encryption".

    Choosing the legacy password mechanism alters the generated launchd file to set --default_authentication_plugin=mysql_native_password under ProgramArguments. Choosing strong password encryption does not set --default_authentication_plugin because the default MySQL Server value is used, which is caching_sha2_password.

  7. Define a password for the root user, and also toggle whether MySQL Server should start after the configuration step is complete.

    Figure 2.16 MySQL Package Installer Wizard: Define Root Password

    Content is described in the surrounding text.

  8. Summary is the final step and references a successful and complete MySQL Server installation. Close the wizard.

    Figure 2.17 MySQL Package Installer Wizard: Summary

    Shows that the installation was a success, and includes links to the MySQL manual, mysql.com, and oracle.com.

MySQL server is now installed. If you chose to not start MySQL, then use either launchctl from the command line or start MySQL by clicking "Start" using the MySQL preference pane. For additional information, see Section 2.4.3, “Installing and Using the MySQL Launch Daemon”, and Section 2.4.4, “Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane”. Use the MySQL Preference Pane or launchd to configure MySQL to automatically start at bootup.

When installing using the package installer, the files are installed into a directory within /usr/local matching the name of the installation version and platform. For example, the installer file mysql-8.0.19-osx10.13-x86_64.dmg installs MySQL into /usr/local/mysql-8.0.19-osx10.13-x86_64/ with a symlink to /usr/local/mysql. The following table shows the layout of this MySQL installation directory.

Table 2.6 MySQL Installation Layout on macOS

Directory Contents of Directory
bin mysqld server, client and utility programs
data Log files, databases, where /usr/local/mysql/data/mysqld.local.err is the default error log
docs Helper documents, like the Release Notes and build information
include Include (header) files
lib Libraries
man Unix manual pages
mysql-test MySQL test suite ('MySQL Test' is disabled by default during the installation process when using the installer package (DMG))
share Miscellaneous support files, including error messages, sample configuration files, SQL for database installation
support-files Scripts and sample configuration files
/tmp/mysql.sock Location of the MySQL Unix socket

2.4.3 Installing and Using the MySQL Launch Daemon

macOS uses launch daemons to automatically start, stop, and manage processes and applications such as MySQL.

By default, the installation package (DMG) on macOS installs a launchd file named /Library/LaunchDaemons/com.oracle.oss.mysql.mysqld.plist that contains a plist definition similar to:


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE plist PUBLIC "-//Apple Computer//DTD PLIST 1.0//EN" "http://www.apple.com/DTDs/PropertyList-1.0.dtd">
<plist version="1.0">
<dict>
    <key>Label</key>             <string>com.oracle.oss.mysql.mysqld</string>
    <key>ProcessType</key>       <string>Interactive</string>
    <key>Disabled</key>          <false/>
    <key>RunAtLoad</key>         <true/>
    <key>KeepAlive</key>         <true/>
    <key>SessionCreate</key>     <true/>
    <key>LaunchOnlyOnce</key>    <false/>
    <key>UserName</key>          <string>_mysql</string>
    <key>GroupName</key>         <string>_mysql</string>
    <key>ExitTimeOut</key>       <integer>600</integer>
    <key>Program</key>           <string>/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld</string>
    <key>ProgramArguments</key>
        <array>
            <string>/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld</string>
            <string>--user=_mysql</string>
            <string>--basedir=/usr/local/mysql</string>
            <string>--datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data</string>
            <string>--plugin-dir=/usr/local/mysql/lib/plugin</string>
            <string>--log-error=/usr/local/mysql/data/mysqld.local.err</string>
            <string>--pid-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/mysqld.local.pid</string>
            <string>--keyring-file-data=/usr/local/mysql/keyring/keyring</string>
            <string>--early-plugin-load=keyring_file=keyring_file.so</string>
        </array>
    <key>WorkingDirectory</key>  <string>/usr/local/mysql</string>
</dict>
</plist>

Note

Some users report that adding a plist DOCTYPE declaration causes the launchd operation to fail, despite it passing the lint check. We suspect it's a copy-n-paste error. The md5 checksum of a file containing the above snippet is d925f05f6d1b6ee5ce5451b596d6baed.

To enable the launchd service, you can either:

  • Open macOS system preferences and select the MySQL preference panel, and then execute Start MySQL Server.

    Figure 2.18 MySQL Preference Pane: Location

    Shows "MySQL" typed into the macOS System Preferences search box, and a highlighted "MySQL" icon in the bottom left.

    The Instances page includes an option to start or stop MySQL, and Initialize Database recreates the data/ directory. Uninstall uninstalls MySQL Server and optionally the MySQL preference panel and launchd information.

    Figure 2.19 MySQL Preference Pane: Instances

    The left side shows a list of MySQL instances separated by "Active Instance", "Installed Instances", and "Data Directories" sections. The right side shows a "Stop MySQL Server" button, a checkbox titled "Start MySQL when your computer starts up", and "Initialize Database" and "Uninstall" buttons. Several fields reference 8.0.11 as the current installed MySQL version.

  • Or, manually load the launchd file.

    shell> cd /Library/LaunchDaemons
    shell> sudo launchctl load -F com.oracle.oss.mysql.mysqld.plist
            
  • To configure MySQL to automatically start at bootup, you can:

    shell> sudo launchctl load -w com.oracle.oss.mysql.mysqld.plist
    
Note

When upgrading MySQL server, the launchd installation process will remove the old startup items that were installed with MySQL server 5.7.7 and below.

Also, upgrading will replace your existing launchd file named com.oracle.oss.mysql.mysqld.plist.

Additional launchd related information:

  • The plist entries override my.cnf entries, because they are passed in as command line arguments. For additional information about passing in program options, see Section 4.2.2, “Specifying Program Options”.

  • The ProgramArguments section defines the command line options that are passed into the program, which is the mysqld binary in this case.

  • The default plist definition is written with less sophisticated use cases in mind. For more complicated setups, you may want to remove some of the arguments and instead rely on a MySQL configuration file, such as my.cnf.

  • If you edit the plist file, then uncheck the installer option when reinstalling or upgrading MySQL. Otherwise, your edited plist file will be overwritten, and all edits will be lost.

Because the default plist definition defines several ProgramArguments, you might remove most of these arguments and instead rely upon your my.cnf MySQL configuration file to define them. For example:


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE plist PUBLIC "-//Apple Computer//DTD PLIST 1.0//EN" "http://www.apple.com/DTDs/PropertyList-1.0.dtd">
<plist version="1.0">
<dict>
    <key>Label</key>             <string>com.oracle.oss.mysql.mysqld</string>
    <key>ProcessType</key>       <string>Interactive</string>
    <key>Disabled</key>          <false/>
    <key>RunAtLoad</key>         <true/>
    <key>KeepAlive</key>         <true/>
    <key>SessionCreate</key>     <true/>
    <key>LaunchOnlyOnce</key>    <false/>
    <key>UserName</key>          <string>_mysql</string>
    <key>GroupName</key>         <string>_mysql</string>
    <key>ExitTimeOut</key>       <integer>600</integer>
    <key>Program</key>           <string>/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld</string>
    <key>ProgramArguments</key>
        <array>
            <string>/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld</string>
            <string>--user=_mysql</string>
            <string>--basedir=/usr/local/mysql</string>
            <string>--datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data</string>
            <string>--plugin-dir=/usr/local/mysql/lib/plugin</string>
            <string>--log-error=/usr/local/mysql/data/mysqld.local.err</string>
            <string>--pid-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/mysqld.local.pid</string>
            <string>--keyring-file-data=/usr/local/mysql/keyring/keyring</string>
            <string>--early-plugin-load=keyring_file=keyring_file.so</string>
        </array>
    <key>WorkingDirectory</key>  <string>/usr/local/mysql</string>
</dict>
</plist>

   

In this case, the basedir, datadir, plugin_dir, log_error, pid_file, keyring_file_data, and --early-plugin-load options were removed from the default plist ProgramArguments definition, which you might have defined in my.cnf instead.

2.4.4 Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane

The MySQL Installation Package includes a MySQL preference pane that enables you to start, stop, and control automated startup during boot of your MySQL installation.

This preference pane is installed by default, and is listed under your system's System Preferences window.

Figure 2.20 MySQL Preference Pane: Location

Shows "MySQL" typed into the macOS System Preferences search box, and a highlighted "MySQL" icon in the bottom left.

The MySQL preference pane is installed with the same DMG file that installs MySQL Server. Typically it is installed with MySQL Server but it can be installed by itself too.

To install the MySQL preference pane:

  1. Go through the process of installing the MySQL server, as described in the documentation at Section 2.4.2, “Installing MySQL on macOS Using Native Packages”.

  2. Click Customize at the Installation Type step. The "Preference Pane" option is listed there and enabled by default; make sure it is not deselected. The other options, such as MySQL Server, can be selected or deslected.

    Figure 2.21 MySQL Package Installer Wizard: Customize

    Customize shows three package name options: MySQL Server, MySQL Test, Preference Pane, and Launchd Support. All three options are checked.

  3. Complete the installation process.

Note

The MySQL preference pane only starts and stops MySQL installation installed from the MySQL package installation that have been installed in the default location.

Once the MySQL preference pane has been installed, you can control your MySQL server instance using this preference pane.

The Instances page includes an option to start and stop MySQL, and Initialize Database recreates the data/ directory. Uninstall uninstalls MySQL Server and optionally the pain and launchd information.

The Instances page includes an option to start or stop MySQL, and Initialize Database recreates the data/ directory. Uninstall uninstalls MySQL Server and optionally the MySQL preference panel and launchd information.

Figure 2.22 MySQL Preference Pane: Instances

The left side shows a list of MySQL instances separated by "Active Instance", "Installed Instances", and "Data Directories" sections. The right side shows a "Stop MySQL Server" button, a checkbox titled "Start MySQL when your computer starts up", and "Initialize Database" and "Uninstall" buttons. Several fields reference 8.0.11 as the current installed MySQL version.

The Configuration page shows MySQL Server options including the path to the MySQL configuration file.

Figure 2.23 MySQL Preference Pane: Configuration

Content is described in the surrounding text.

The MySQL Preference Pane shows the current status of the MySQL server, showing stopped (in red) if the server is not running and running (in green) if the server has already been started. The preference pane also shows the current setting for whether the MySQL server has been set to start automatically.

2.5 Installing MySQL on Linux

Linux supports a number of different solutions for installing MySQL. We recommend that you use one of the distributions from Oracle, for which several methods for installation are available:

Table 2.7 Linux Installation Methods and Information

Type Setup Method Additional Information
Apt Enable the MySQL Apt repository Documentation
Yum Enable the MySQL Yum repository Documentation
Zypper Enable the MySQL SLES repository Documentation
RPM Download a specific package Documentation
DEB Download a specific package Documentation
Generic Download a generic package Documentation
Source Compile from source Documentation
Docker Use Docker Hub for MySQL Community Edition; download Docker image for MySQL Enterprise Edition from My Oracle Support Documentation
Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network Use ULN channels Documentation

As an alternative, you can use the package manager on your system to automatically download and install MySQL with packages from the native software repositories of your Linux distribution. These native packages are often several versions behind the currently available release. You will also normally be unable to install development milestone releases (DMRs), as these are not usually made available in the native repositories. For more information on using the native package installers, see Section 2.5.7, “Installing MySQL on Linux from the Native Software Repositories”.

Note

For many Linux installations, you will want to set up MySQL to be started automatically when your machine starts. Many of the native package installations perform this operation for you, but for source, binary and RPM solutions you may need to set this up separately. The required script, mysql.server, can be found in the support-files directory under the MySQL installation directory or in a MySQL source tree. You can install it as /etc/init.d/mysql for automatic MySQL startup and shutdown. See Section 4.3.3, “mysql.server — MySQL Server Startup Script”.

2.5.1 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL Yum Repository

The MySQL Yum repository for Oracle Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, CentOS, and Fedora provides RPM packages for installing the MySQL server, client, MySQL Workbench, MySQL Utilities, MySQL Router, MySQL Shell, Connector/ODBC, Connector/Python and so on (not all packages are available for all the distributions; see Installing Additional MySQL Products and Components with Yum for details).

Before You Start

As a popular, open-source software, MySQL, in its original or re-packaged form, is widely installed on many systems from various sources, including different software download sites, software repositories, and so on. The following instructions assume that MySQL is not already installed on your system using a third-party-distributed RPM package; if that is not the case, follow the instructions given in Section 2.11.7, “Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL Yum Repository” or Replacing a Third-Party Distribution of MySQL Using the MySQL Yum Repository.

Steps for a Fresh Installation of MySQL

Follow the steps below to install the latest GA version of MySQL with the MySQL Yum repository:

  1. Adding the MySQL Yum Repository

    First, add the MySQL Yum repository to your system's repository list. This is a one-time operation, which can be performed by installing an RPM provided by MySQL. Follow these steps:

    1. Go to the Download MySQL Yum Repository page (https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/repo/yum/) in the MySQL Developer Zone.

    2. Select and download the release package for your platform.

    3. Install the downloaded release package with the following command, replacing platform-and-version-specific-package-name with the name of the downloaded RPM package:

      shell> sudo yum localinstall platform-and-version-specific-package-name.rpm
      

      For an EL6-based system, the command is in the form of:

      shell> sudo yum localinstall mysql80-community-release-el6-{version-number}.noarch.rpm
      

      For an EL7-based system:

      shell> sudo yum localinstall mysql80-community-release-el7-{version-number}.noarch.rpm
      

      For Fedora 30:

      shell> sudo dnf localinstall mysql80-community-release-fc30-{version-number}.noarch.rpm
      

      For Fedora 29:

      shell> sudo dnf localinstall mysql80-community-release-fc29-{version-number}.noarch.rpm
      

      The installation command adds the MySQL Yum repository to your system's repository list and downloads the GnuPG key to check the integrity of the software packages. See Section 2.1.3.2, “Signature Checking Using GnuPG” for details on GnuPG key checking.

      You can check that the MySQL Yum repository has been successfully added by the following command (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf):

      shell> yum repolist enabled | grep "mysql.*-community.*"
      

    Note

    Once the MySQL Yum repository is enabled on your system, any system-wide update by the yum update command (or dnf upgrade for dnf-enabled systems) will upgrade MySQL packages on your system and also replace any native third-party packages, if Yum finds replacements for them in the MySQL Yum repository; see Section 2.11.7, “Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL Yum Repository” and, for a discussion on some possible effects of that on your system, see Upgrading the Shared Client Libraries.

  2. Selecting a Release Series

    When using the MySQL Yum repository, the latest GA series (currently MySQL 8.0) is selected for installation by default. If this is what you want, you can skip to the next step, Installing MySQL.

    Within the MySQL Yum repository, different release series of the MySQL Community Server are hosted in different subrepositories. The subrepository for the latest GA series (currently MySQL 8.0) is enabled by default, and the subrepositories for all other series (for example, the MySQL 8.0 series) are disabled by default. Use this command to see all the subrepositories in the MySQL Yum repository, and see which of them are enabled or disabled (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf):

    shell> yum repolist all | grep mysql
    

    To install the latest release from the latest GA series, no configuration is needed. To install the latest release from a specific series other than the latest GA series, disable the subrepository for the latest GA series and enable the subrepository for the specific series before running the installation command. If your platform supports yum-config-manager, you can do that by issuing these commands, which disable the subrepository for the 5.7 series and enable the one for the 8.0 series:

    shell> sudo yum-config-manager --disable mysql57-community
    shell> sudo yum-config-manager --enable mysql80-community
    

    For dnf-enabled platforms:

    shell> sudo dnf config-manager --disable mysql57-community
    shell> sudo dnf config-manager --enable mysql80-community
    

    Besides using yum-config-manager or the dnf config-manager command, you can also select a release series by editing manually the /etc/yum.repos.d/mysql-community.repo file. This is a typical entry for a release series' subrepository in the file:

    [mysql57-community]
    name=MySQL 5.7 Community Server
    baseurl=http://repo.mysql.com/yum/mysql-5.7-community/el/6/$basearch/
    enabled=1
    gpgcheck=1
    gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-mysql
    

    Find the entry for the subrepository you want to configure, and edit the enabled option. Specify enabled=0 to disable a subrepository, or enabled=1 to enable a subrepository. For example, to install MySQL 8.0, make sure you have enabled=0 for the above subrepository entry for MySQL 5.7, and have enabled=1 for the entry for the 8.0 series:

    # Enable to use MySQL 8.0
    [mysql80-community]
    name=MySQL 8.0 Community Server
    baseurl=http://repo.mysql.com/yum/mysql-8.0-community/el/6/$basearch/
    enabled=1
    gpgcheck=1
    gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-mysql
    

    You should only enable subrepository for one release series at any time. When subrepositories for more than one release series are enabled, the latest series will be used by Yum.

    Verify that the correct subrepositories have been enabled and disabled by running the following command and checking its output (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf):

    shell> yum repolist enabled | grep mysql
    
  3. Installing MySQL

    Install MySQL by the following command (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf):

    shell> sudo yum install mysql-community-server
    

    This installs the package for MySQL server (mysql-community-server) and also packages for the components required to run the server, including packages for the client (mysql-community-client), the common error messages and character sets for client and server (mysql-community-common), and the shared client libraries (mysql-community-libs).

  4. Starting the MySQL Server

    Start the MySQL server with the following command:

    shell> sudo service mysqld start
    Starting mysqld:[ OK ]
    

    You can check the status of the MySQL server with the following command:

    shell> sudo service mysqld status
    mysqld (pid 3066) is running.
    

At the initial start up of the server, the following happens, given that the data directory of the server is empty:

  • The server is initialized.

  • SSL certificate and key files are generated in the data directory.

  • validate_password is installed and enabled.

  • A superuser account 'root'@'localhost is created. A password for the superuser is set and stored in the error log file. To reveal it, use the following command:

    shell> sudo grep 'temporary password' /var/log/mysqld.log
    

    Change the root password as soon as possible by logging in with the generated, temporary password and set a custom password for the superuser account:

    shell> mysql -uroot -p 
    
    mysql> ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'MyNewPass4!';
    
    Note

    validate_password is installed by default. The default password policy implemented by validate_password requires that passwords contain at least one upper case letter, one lower case letter, one digit, and one special character, and that the total password length is at least 8 characters.

For more information on the postinstallation procedures, see Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”.

Note

Compatibility Information for EL7-based platforms: The following RPM packages from the native software repositories of the platforms are incompatible with the package from the MySQL Yum repository that installs the MySQL server. Once you have installed MySQL using the MySQL Yum repository, you will not be able to install these packages (and vice versa).

  • akonadi-mysql

Installing Additional MySQL Products and Components with Yum

You can use Yum to install and manage individual components of MySQL. Some of these components are hosted in sub-repositories of the MySQL Yum repository: for example, the MySQL Connectors are to be found in the MySQL Connectors Community sub-repository, and the MySQL Workbench in MySQL Tools Community. You can use the following command to list the packages for all the MySQL components available for your platform from the MySQL Yum repository (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf):

shell> sudo yum --disablerepo=\* --enablerepo='mysql*-community*' list available

Install any packages of your choice with the following command, replacing package-name with name of the package (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf):

shell> sudo yum install package-name

For example, to install MySQL Workbench on Fedora:

shell> sudo dnf install mysql-workbench-community

To install the shared client libraries (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf):

shell> sudo yum install mysql-community-libs

Platform Specific Notes

ARM Support

ARM 64-bit (aarch64) is supported on Oracle Linux 7 and requires the Oracle Linux 7 Software Collections Repository (ol7_software_collections). For example, to install the server:

shell> yum-config-manager --enable ol7_software_collections
shell> yum install mysql-community-server
Note

ARM 64-bit (aarch64) is supported on Oracle Linux 7 as of MySQL 8.0.12.

Known Limitation

The 8.0.12 release requires you to adjust the libstdc++7 path by executing ln -s /opt/oracle/oracle-armtoolset-1/root/usr/lib64 /usr/lib64/gcc7 after executing the yum install step.

Updating MySQL with Yum

Besides installation, you can also perform updates for MySQL products and components using the MySQL Yum repository. See Section 2.11.7, “Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL Yum Repository” for details.

2.5.2 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL APT Repository

The MySQL APT repository provides deb packages for installing and managing the MySQL server, client, and other components on the following Linux platforms:

  • Debian 9

  • Ubuntu 16.04, 17.10, and 18.04

Instructions for using the MySQL APT Repository are available in A Quick Guide to Using the MySQL APT Repository.

2.5.3 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL SLES Repository

The MySQL SLES repository provides RPM packages for installing and managing the MySQL server, client, and other components on SUSE Enterprise Linux Server.

Instructions for using the MySQL SLES repository are available in A Quick Guide to Using the MySQL SLES Repository.

2.5.4 Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages from Oracle

The recommended way to install MySQL on RPM-based Linux distributions is by using the RPM packages provided by Oracle. There are two sources for obtaining them, for the Community Edition of MySQL:

Note

RPM distributions of MySQL are also provided by other vendors. Be aware that they may differ from those built by Oracle in features, capabilities, and conventions (including communication setup), and that the installation instructions in this manual do not necessarily apply to them. The vendor's instructions should be consulted instead.

MySQL RPM Packages

Table 2.8 RPM Packages for MySQL Community Edition

Package Name Summary
mysql-community-client MySQL client applications and tools
mysql-community-common Common files for server and client libraries
mysql-community-devel Development header files and libraries for MySQL database client applications
mysql-community-embedded-compat MySQL server as an embedded library with compatibility for applications using version 18 of the library
mysql-community-libs Shared libraries for MySQL database client applications
mysql-community-libs-compat Shared compatibility libraries for previous MySQL installations
mysql-community-server Database server and related tools
mysql-community-server-debug Debug server and plugin binaries
mysql-community-test Test suite for the MySQL server
mysql-community The source code RPM looks similar to mysql-community-8.0.19-1.el7.src.rpm, depending on selected OS

Table 2.9 RPM Packages for the MySQL Enterprise Edition

Package Name Summary
mysql-commercial-backup MySQL Enterprise Backup (added in 8.0.11)
mysql-commercial-client MySQL client applications and tools
mysql-commercial-common Common files for server and client libraries
mysql-commercial-devel Development header files and libraries for MySQL database client applications
mysql-commercial-embedded-compat MySQL server as an embedded library with compatibility for applications using version 18 of the library
mysql-commercial-libs Shared libraries for MySQL database client applications
mysql-commercial-libs-compat Shared compatibility libraries for previous MySQL installations; the version of the libraries matches the version of the libraries installed by default by the distribution you are using
mysql-commercial-server Database server and related tools
mysql-commercial-test Test suite for the MySQL server

The full names for the RPMs have the following syntax:

packagename-version-distribution-arch.rpm

The distribution and arch values indicate the Linux distribution and the processor type for which the package was built. See the table below for lists of the distribution identifiers:

Table 2.10 MySQL Linux RPM Package Distribution Identifiers

Distribution Value Intended Use
el6, el7 Red Hat Enterprise Linux/Oracle Linux/CentOS 6 or 7
fc29 fc30 Fedora 29 and 30
sles12 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12

To see all files in an RPM package (for example, mysql-community-server), use the following command:

shell> rpm -qpl mysql-community-server-version-distribution-arch.rpm

The discussion in the rest of this section applies only to an installation process using the RPM packages directly downloaded from Oracle, instead of through a MySQL repository.

Dependency relationships exist among some of the packages. If you plan to install many of the packages, you may wish to download the RPM bundle tar file instead, which contains all the RPM packages listed above, so that you need not download them separately.

In most cases, you need to install the mysql-community-server, mysql-community-client, mysql-community-libs, mysql-community-common, and mysql-community-libs-compat packages to get a functional, standard MySQL installation. To perform such a standard, basic installation, go to the folder that contains all those packages (and, preferably, no other RPM packages with similar names), and issue the following command:

shell> sudo yum install mysql-community-{server,client,common,libs}-*

Replace yum with zypper for SLES, and with dnf for Fedora.

While it is much preferable to use a high-level package management tool like yum to install the packages, users who prefer direct rpm commands can replace the yum install command with the rpm -Uvh command; however, using rpm -Uvh instead makes the installation process more prone to failure, due to potential dependency issues the installation process might run into.

To install only the client programs, you can skip mysql-community-server in your list of packages to install; issue the following command:

shell> sudo yum install mysql-community-{client,common,libs}-* 

Replace yum with zypper for SLES, and with dnf for Fedora.

A standard installation of MySQL using the RPM packages result in files and resources created under the system directories, shown in the following table.

Table 2.11 MySQL Installation Layout for Linux RPM Packages from the MySQL Developer Zone

Files or Resources Location
Client programs and scripts /usr/bin
mysqld server /usr/sbin
Configuration file /etc/my.cnf
Data directory /var/lib/mysql
Error log file

For RHEL, Oracle Linux, CentOS or Fedora platforms: /var/log/mysqld.log

For SLES: /var/log/mysql/mysqld.log

Value of secure_file_priv /var/lib/mysql-files
System V init script

For RHEL, Oracle Linux, CentOS or Fedora platforms: /etc/init.d/mysqld

For SLES: /etc/init.d/mysql

Systemd service

For RHEL, Oracle Linux, CentOS or Fedora platforms: mysqld

For SLES: mysql

Pid file /var/run/mysql/mysqld.pid
Socket /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
Keyring directory /var/lib/mysql-keyring
Unix manual pages /usr/share/man
Include (header) files /usr/include/mysql
Libraries /usr/lib/mysql
Miscellaneous support files (for example, error messages, and character set files) /usr/share/mysql

The installation also creates a user named mysql and a group named mysql on the system.

Note

Installation of previous versions of MySQL using older packages might have created a configuration file named /usr/my.cnf. It is highly recommended that you examine the contents of the file and migrate the desired settings inside to the file /etc/my.cnf file, then remove /usr/my.cnf.

MySQL is NOT automatically started at the end of the installation process. For Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Oracle Linux, CentOS, and Fedora systems, use the following command to start MySQL:

shell> systemctl start mysqld

For SLES systems, the command is the same, but the service name is different:

shell> systemctl start mysql

If the operating system is systemd enabled, standard systemctl (or alternatively, service with the arguments reversed) commands such as stop, start, status, and restart should be used to manage the MySQL server service. The mysqld service is enabled by default, and it starts at system reboot. Notice that certain things might work differently on systemd platforms: for example, changing the location of the data directory might cause issues. See Section 2.5.9, “Managing MySQL Server with systemd” for additional information.

During an upgrade installation using RPM packages, if the MySQL server is running when the upgrade occurs then the MySQL server is stopped, the upgrade occurs, and the MySQL server is restarted. One exception: if the edition also changes during an upgrade (such as community to commercial, or vice-versa), then MySQL server is not restarted.

At the initial start up of the server, the following happens, given that the data directory of the server is empty:

  • The server is initialized.

  • An SSL certificate and key files are generated in the data directory.

  • validate_password is installed and enabled.

  • A superuser account 'root'@'localhost' is created. A password for the superuser is set and stored in the error log file. To reveal it, use the following command for RHEL, Oracle Linux, CentOS, and Fedora systems:

    shell> sudo grep 'temporary password' /var/log/mysqld.log
    

    Use the following command for SLES systems:

    shell> sudo grep 'temporary password' /var/log/mysql/mysqld.log
    

    The next step is to log in with the generated, temporary password and set a custom password for the superuser account:

shell> mysql -uroot -p 
mysql> ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'MyNewPass4!';
Note

validate_password is installed by default. The default password policy implemented by validate_password requires that passwords contain at least one upper case letter, one lower case letter, one digit, and one special character, and that the total password length is at least 8 characters.

If something goes wrong during installation, you might find debug information in the error log file /var/log/mysqld.log.

For some Linux distributions, it might be necessary to increase the limit on number of file descriptors available to mysqld. See Section B.4.2.17, “File Not Found and Similar Errors”

Installing Client Libraries from Multiple MySQL Versions.  It is possible to install multiple client library versions, such as for the case that you want to maintain compatibility with older applications linked against previous libraries. To install an older client library, use the --oldpackage option with rpm. For example, to install mysql-community-libs-5.5 on an EL6 system that has libmysqlclient.21 from MySQL 8.0, use a command like this:

shell> rpm --oldpackage -ivh mysql-community-libs-5.5.50-2.el6.x86_64.rpm

Debug Package.  A special variant of MySQL Server compiled with the debug package has been included in the server RPM packages. It performs debugging and memory allocation checks and produces a trace file when the server is running. To use that debug version, start MySQL with /usr/sbin/mysqld-debug, instead of starting it as a service or with /usr/sbin/mysqld. See Section 29.5.4, “The DBUG Package” for the debug options you can use.

Note

The default plugin directory for debug builds changed from /usr/lib64/mysql/plugin to /usr/lib64/mysql/plugin/debug in MySQL 8.0.4. Previously, it was necessary to change plugin_dir to /usr/lib64/mysql/plugin/debug for debug builds.

Rebuilding RPMs from source SRPMs.  Source code SRPM packages for MySQL are available for download. They can be used as-is to rebuild the MySQL RPMs with the standard rpmbuild tool chain.

2.5.5 Installing MySQL on Linux Using Debian Packages from Oracle

Oracle provides Debian packages for installing MySQL on Debian or Debian-like Linux systems. The packages are available through two different channels:

  • The MySQL APT Repository. This is the preferred method for installing MySQL on Debian-like systems, as it provides a simple and convenient way to install and update MySQL products. For details, see Section 2.5.2, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL APT Repository”.

  • The MySQL Developer Zone's Download Area. For details, see Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”. The following are some information on the Debian packages available there and the instructions for installing them:

    • Various Debian packages are provided in the MySQL Developer Zone for installing different components of MySQL on different Debian or Ubuntu platforms (currently, Debian 9, and Ubuntu 16, 17, and 18 are supported). The preferred method is to use the tarball bundle, which contains the packages needed for a basic setup of MySQL. The tarball bundles have names in the format of mysql-server_MVER-DVER_CPU.deb-bundle.tar. MVER is the MySQL version and DVER is the Linux distribution version. The CPU value indicates the processor type or family for which the package is built, as shown in the following table:

      Table 2.12 MySQL Debian and Ubuntu Installation Packages CPU Identifiers

      CPU Value Intended Processor Type or Family
      i386 Pentium processor or better, 32 bit
      amd64 64-bit x86 processor

    • After downloading the tarball, unpack it with the following command:

      shell> tar -xvf mysql-server_MVER-DVER_CPU.deb-bundle.tar
      
    • You may need to install the libaio library if it is not already present on your system:

      shell> sudo apt-get install libaio1
      
    • Preconfigure the MySQL server package with the following command:

      shell> sudo dpkg-preconfigure mysql-community-server_*.deb
      

      You will be asked to provide a password for the root user for your MySQL installation. You might also be asked other questions regarding the installation.

      Important

      Make sure you remember the root password you set. Users who want to set a password later can leave the password field blank in the dialogue box and just press OK; in that case, root access to the server is authenticated using the MySQL Socket Peer-Credential Authentication Plugin for connections using a Unix socket file. You can set the root password later using mysql_secure_installation.

    • For a basic installation of the MySQL server, install the database common files package, the client package, the client metapackage, the server package, and the server metapackage (in that order); you can do that with a single command:

      shell> sudo dpkg -i mysql-{common,community-client,client,community-server,server}_*.deb
      

      There are also packages with server-core and client-core in the package names. These contain binaries only and are installed automatically by the standard packages. Installing them by themselves will not result in a functioning MySQL setup.

      If you are being warned of unmet dependencies by dpkg, you can fix them using apt-get:

      sudo apt-get -f install

      Here are where the files are installed on the system:

      • All configuration files (like my.cnf) are under /etc/mysql

      • All binaries, libraries, headers, etc., are under /usr/bin and /usr/sbin

      • The data directory is under /var/lib/mysql

Note

Debian distributions of MySQL are also provided by other vendors. Be aware that they may differ from those built by Oracle in features, capabilities, and conventions (including communication setup), and that the instructions in this manual do not necessarily apply to installing them. The vendor's instructions should be consulted instead.

2.5.6 Deploying MySQL on Linux with Docker

The Docker deployment framework supports easy installation and configuration of MySQL Server. This section explains how to use a MySQL Server Docker image.

You need to have Docker installed on your system before you can use a MySQL Server Docker image. See Install Docker for instructions.

Important

You need to either run docker commands with sudo, or create a docker usergroup, and then add to it any users who want to run docker commands. See details here. Because Docker containers are always run with root privileges, you should understand the Docker daemon attack surface and properly mitigate the related risks.

2.5.6.1 Basic Steps for MySQL Server Deployment with Docker

Warning

The MySQL Docker images maintained by the MySQL team are built specifically for Linux platforms. Other platforms are not supported, and users using these MySQL Docker images on them are doing so at their own risk. See the discussion here for some known limitations for running these containers on non-Linux operating systems.

Downloading a MySQL Server Docker Image

Downloading the server image in a separate step is not strictly necessary; however, performing this step before you create your Docker container ensures your local image is up to date. To download the MySQL Community Edition image, run this command:

docker pull mysql/mysql-server:tag

The tag is the label for the image version you want to pull (for example, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 8.0, or latest). If :tag is omitted, the latest label is used, and the image for the latest GA version of MySQL Community Server is downloaded. Refer to the list of tags for available versions on the mysql/mysql-server page in the Docker Hub.

You can list downloaded Docker images with this command:

shell> docker images
REPOSITORY           TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
mysql/mysql-server   latest              3157d7f55f8d        4 weeks ago         241MB

To download the MySQL Enterprise Edition image from the My Oracle Support website, sign in to your Oracle account, download from Patches and Updates the tar.zip file for the Docker image (mysql-commercial-version_linux_x86_64_docker_tar.zip), unzip it to obtain the tarball inside (mysql-enterprise-server-version.tar), and then load the image by running this command:

docker load -i mysql-enterprise-server-version.tar
Starting a MySQL Server Instance

To start a new Docker container for a MySQL Server, use the following command:

docker run --name=container_name -d image_name:tag 

The image name can be obtained using the docker images command, as explained in Downloading a MySQL Server Docker Image. The --name option, for supplying a custom name for your server container, is optional; if no container name is supplied, a random one is generated.

For example, to start a new Docker container for the MySQL Community Server, use this command:

docker run --name=mysql1 -d mysql/mysql-server:8.0 

To start a new Docker container for the MySQL Enterprise Server with a Docker image downloaded from My Oracle Support, use this command:

docker run --name=mysql1 -d mysql/enterprise-server:8.0 

If the Docker image of the specified name and tag has not been downloaded by an earlier docker pull or docker run command, the image is now downloaded. Initialization for the container begins, and the container appears in the list of running containers when you run the docker ps command. For example:

shell> docker ps
CONTAINER ID   IMAGE                COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS                              PORTS                NAMES
a24888f0d6f4   mysql/mysql-server   "/entrypoint.sh my..."   14 seconds ago      Up 13 seconds (health: starting)    3306/tcp, 33060/tcp  mysql1 

The container initialization might take some time. When the server is ready for use, the STATUS of the container in the output of the docker ps command changes from (health: starting) to (healthy).

The -d option used in the docker run command above makes the container run in the background. Use this command to monitor the output from the container:

docker logs mysql1

Once initialization is finished, the command's output is going to contain the random password generated for the root user; check the password with, for example, this command:

shell> docker logs mysql1 2>&1 | grep GENERATED
GENERATED ROOT PASSWORD: Axegh3kAJyDLaRuBemecis&EShOs

Connecting to MySQL Server from within the Container

Once the server is ready, you can run the mysql client within the MySQL Server container you just started, and connect it to the MySQL Server. Use the docker exec -it command to start a mysql client inside the Docker container you have started, like the following:

docker exec -it mysql1 mysql -uroot -p

When asked, enter the generated root password (see the last step in Starting a MySQL Server Instance above on how to find the password). Because the MYSQL_ONETIME_PASSWORD option is true by default, after you have connected a mysql client to the server, you must reset the server root password by issuing this statement:

mysql> ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';

Substitute password with the password of your choice. Once the password is reset, the server is ready for use.

Container Shell Access

To have shell access to your MySQL Server container, use the docker exec -it command to start a bash shell inside the container:

shell> docker exec -it mysql1 bash 
bash-4.2#

You can then run Linux commands inside the container. For example, to view contents in the server's data directory inside the container, use this command:

bash-4.2# ls /var/lib/mysql
auto.cnf    ca.pem	     client-key.pem  ib_logfile0  ibdata1  mysql       mysql.sock.lock	   private_key.pem  server-cert.pem  sys
ca-key.pem  client-cert.pem  ib_buffer_pool  ib_logfile1  ibtmp1   mysql.sock  performance_schema  public_key.pem   server-key.pem
Stopping and Deleting a MySQL Container

To stop the MySQL Server container we have created, use this command:

docker stop mysql1

docker stop sends a SIGTERM signal to the mysqld process, so that the server is shut down gracefully.

Also notice that when the main process of a container (mysqld in the case of a MySQL Server container) is stopped, the Docker container stops automatically.

To start the MySQL Server container again:

docker start mysql1

To stop and start again the MySQL Server container with a single command:

docker restart mysql1

To delete the MySQL container, stop it first, and then use the docker rm command:

docker stop mysql1
docker rm mysql1 

If you want the Docker volume for the server's data directory to be deleted at the same time, add the -v option to the docker rm command.

Upgrading a MySQL Server Container
Important
  • Before performing any upgrade to MySQL, follow carefully the instructions in Section 2.11, “Upgrading MySQL”. Among other instructions discussed there, it is especially important to back up your database before the upgrade.

  • The instructions in this section require that the server's data and configuration have been persisted on the host. See Persisting Data and Configuration Changes for details.

Follow these steps to upgrade a Docker installation of MySQL 5.7 to 8.0:

  • Stop the MySQL 5.7 server (container name is mysql57 in this example):

    docker stop mysql57
    
  • Download the MySQL 8.0 Server Docker image. See instructions in Downloading a MySQL Server Docker Image; make sure you use the right tag for MySQL 8.0.

  • Start a new MySQL 8.0 Docker container (named mysql80 in this example) with the old server data and configuration (with proper modifications if needed—see Section 2.11, “Upgrading MySQL”) that have been persisted on the host (by bind-mounting in this example). For the MySQL Community Server, run this command:

    docker run --name=mysql80 \
       --mount type=bind,src=/path-on-host-machine/my.cnf,dst=/etc/my.cnf \
       --mount type=bind,src=/path-on-host-machine/datadir,dst=/var/lib/mysql \        
       -d mysql/mysql-server:8.0

    If needed, adjust mysql/mysql-server to the correct repository name—for example, replace it with mysql/enterprise-server for MySQL Enterprise Edition images downloaded from My Oracle Support.

  • Wait for the server to finish startup. You can check the status of the server using the docker ps command (see Starting a MySQL Server Instance for how to do that).

  • For MySQL 8.0.15 and earlier: Run the mysql_upgrade utility in the MySQL 8.0 Server container (not required for MySQL 8.0.16 and later):

    docker exec -it mysql80 mysql_upgrade -uroot -p
    

    When prompted, enter the root password for your old MySQL 5.7 Server.

  • Finish the upgrade by restarting the MySQL 8.0 Server container:

    docker restart mysql80
    
More Topics on Deploying MySQL Server with Docker

For more topics on deploying MySQL Server with Docker like server configuration, persisting data and configuration, server error log, and container environment variables, see Section 2.5.6.2, “More Topics on Deploying MySQL Server with Docker”.

2.5.6.2 More Topics on Deploying MySQL Server with Docker

Note

Most of the sample commands below have mysql/mysql-server as the Docker image repository when that has to be specified (like with the docker pull and docker run commands); change that if your image is from another repository—for example, replace it with mysql/enterprise-server for MySQL Enterprise Edition images downloaded from My Oracle Support.

The Optimized MySQL Installation for Docker

Docker images for MySQL are optimized for code size, which means they only include crucial components that are expected to be relevant for the majority of users who run MySQL instances in Docker containers. A MySQL Docker installation is different from a common, non-Docker installation in the following aspects:

  • Included binaries are limited to:

    • /usr/bin/my_print_defaults

    • /usr/bin/mysql

    • /usr/bin/mysql_config

    • /usr/bin/mysql_install_db

    • /usr/bin/mysql_tzinfo_to_sql

    • /usr/bin/mysql_upgrade

    • /usr/bin/mysqladmin

    • /usr/bin/mysqlcheck

    • /usr/bin/mysqldump

    • /usr/bin/mysqlpump

    • /usr/bin/mysqlbackup (for MySQL Enterprise Edition 8.0 only)

    • /usr/sbin/mysqld

  • All binaries are stripped; they contain no debug information.

Configuring the MySQL Server

When you start the MySQL Docker container, you can pass configuration options to the server through the docker run command. For example:

docker run --name mysql1 -d mysql/mysql-server:tag --character-set-server=utf8mb4 --collation-server=utf8mb4_col

The command starts your MySQL Server with utf8mb4 as the default character set and utf8mb4_col as the default collation for your databases.

Another way to configure the MySQL Server is to prepare a configuration file and mount it at the location of the server configuration file inside the container. See Persisting Data and Configuration Changes for details.

Persisting Data and Configuration Changes

Docker containers are in principle ephemeral, and any data or configuration are expected to be lost if the container is deleted or corrupted (see discussions here). Docker volumes, however, provides a mechanism to persist data created inside a Docker container. At its initialization, the MySQL Server container creates a Docker volume for the server data directory. The JSON output for running the docker inspect command on the container has a Mount key, whose value provides information on the data directory volume:

shell> docker inspect mysql1 
...
 "Mounts": [
            {
                "Type": "volume",
                "Name": "4f2d463cfc4bdd4baebcb098c97d7da3337195ed2c6572bc0b89f7e845d27652",
                "Source": "/var/lib/docker/volumes/4f2d463cfc4bdd4baebcb098c97d7da3337195ed2c6572bc0b89f7e845d27652/_data",
                "Destination": "/var/lib/mysql",
                "Driver": "local",
                "Mode": "",
                "RW": true,
                "Propagation": ""
            }
        ],
...

The output shows that the source folder /var/lib/docker/volumes/4f2d463cfc4bdd4baebcb098c97d7da3337195ed2c6572bc0b89f7e845d27652/_data, in which data is persisted on the host, has been mounted at /var/lib/mysql, the server data directory inside the container.

Another way to preserve data is to bind-mount a host directory using the --mount option when creating the container. The same technique can be used to persist the configuration of the server. The following command creates a MySQL Server container and bind-mounts both the data directory and the server configuration file:

docker run --name=mysql1 \
--mount type=bind,src=/path-on-host-machine/my.cnf,dst=/etc/my.cnf \
--mount type=bind,src=/path-on-host-machine/datadir,dst=/var/lib/mysql \
-d mysql/mysql-server:tag 

The command mounts path-on-host-machine/my.cnf at /etc/my.cnf (the server configuration file inside the container), and path-on-host-machine/datadir at /var/lib/mysql (the data directory inside the container). The following conditions must be met for the bind-mounting to work:

  • The configuration file path-on-host-machine/my.cnf must already exist, and it must contain the specification for starting the server using the user mysql:

    [mysqld]
    user=mysql

    You can also include other server configuration options in the file.

  • The data directory path-on-host-machine/datadir must already exist. For server initialization to happen, the directory must be empty. You can also mount a directory prepopulated with data and start the server with it; however, you must make sure you start the Docker container with the same configuration as the server that created the data, and any host files or directories required are mounted when starting the container.

Running Additional Initialization Scripts

If there are any .sh or .sql scripts you want to run on the database immediately after it has been created, you can put them into a host directory and then mount the directory at /docker-entrypoint-initdb.d/ inside the container. For example:

docker run --name=mysql1 \
--mount type=bind,src=/path-on-host-machine/scripts/,dst=/docker-entrypoint-initdb.d/ \
-d mysql/mysql-server:tag
Connect to MySQL from an Application in Another Docker Container

By setting up a Docker network, you can allow multiple Docker containers to communicate with each other, so that a client application in another Docker container can access the MySQL Server in the server container. First, create a Docker network:

docker network create my-custom-net

Then, when you are creating and starting the server and the client containers, use the --network option to put them on network you created. For example:

docker run --name=mysql1 --network=my-custom-net -d mysql/mysql-server
docker run --name=myapp1 --network=my-custom-net -d myapp

The myapp1 container can then connect to the mysql1 container with the mysql1 hostname and vice versa, as Docker automatically sets up a DNS for the given container names. In the following example, we run the mysql client from inside the myapp1 container to connect to host mysql1 in its own container:

docker exec -it myapp1 mysql --host=mysql1 --user=myuser --password

For other networking techniques for containers, see the Docker container networking section in the Docker Documentation.

Server Error Log

When the MySQL Server is first started with your server container, a server error log is NOT generated if either of the following conditions is true:

  • A server configuration file from the host has been mounted, but the file does not contain the system variable log_error (see Persisting Data and Configuration Changes on bind-mounting a server configuration file).

  • A server configuration file from the host has not been mounted, but the Docker environment variable MYSQL_LOG_CONSOLE is true (which is the variable's default state for MySQL 8.0 server containers). The MySQL Server's error log is then redirected to stderr, so that the error log goes into the Docker container's log and is viewable using the docker logs mysqld-container command.

To make MySQL Server generate an error log when either of the two conditions is true, use the --log-error option to configure the server to generate the error log at a specific location inside the container. To persist the error log, mount a host file at the location of the error log inside the container as explained in Persisting Data and Configuration Changes. However, you must make sure your MySQL Server inside its container has write access to the mounted host file.

Using MySQL Enterprise Backup with Docker

MySQL Enterprise Backup is a commercially-licensed backup utility for MySQL Server, available with MySQL Enterprise Edition. MySQL Enterprise Backup is included in the Docker installation of MySQL Enterprise Edition.

In the following example, we assume that you already have a MySQL Server running in a Docker container (see Section 2.5.6.1, “Basic Steps for MySQL Server Deployment with Docker” on how to start a MySQL Server instance with Docker). For MySQL Enterprise Backup to back up the MySQL Server, it must have access to the server's data directory. This can be achieved by, for example, bind-mounting a host directory on the data directory of the MySQL Server when you start the server:

docker run --name=mysqlserver \
--mount type=bind,src=/path-on-host-machine/datadir/,dst=/var/lib/mysql \
-d mysql/enterprise-server:8.0

With this command, the MySQL Server is started with a Docker image of the MySQL Enterprise Edition, and the host directory /path-on-host-machine/datadir/ has been mounted onto the server's data directory (/var/lib/mysql) inside the server container. We also assume that, after the server has been started, the required privileges have also been set up for MySQL Enterprise Backup to access the server (see Grant MySQL Privileges to Backup Administrator for details). Use the following steps then to backup and restore a MySQL Server instance.

To backup a MySQL Server instance running in a Docker container using MySQL Enterprise Backup with Docker:

  1. On the same host where the MySQL Server container is running, start another container with an image of MySQL Enterprise Edition to perform a back up with the MySQL Enterprise Backup command backup-to-image. Provide access to the server's data directory using the bind mount we created in the last step. Also, mount a host directory (/path-on-host-machine/backups/ in this example) onto the storage folder for backups in the container (/data/backups in the example) to persist the backups we are creating. Here is a sample command for this step, in which MySQL Enterprise Backup is started with a Docker image downloaded from My Oracle Support):

    shell> docker run \
    --mount type=bind,src=/path-on-host-machine/datadir/,dst=/var/lib/mysql \
    --mount type=bind,src=/path-on-host-machine/backups/,dst=/data/backups \ 
    --rm mysql/enterprise-server:8.0 \
    mysqlbackup -umysqlbackup -ppassword --backup-dir=/tmp/backup-tmp --with-timestamp \
    --backup-image=/data/backups/db.mbi backup-to-image
    
    [Entrypoint] MySQL Docker Image 8.0.11-1.1.5
    MySQL Enterprise Backup version 8.0.11 Linux-4.1.12-61.1.16.el7uek.x86_64-x86_64 [2018-04-08  07:06:45] 
    Copyright (c) 2003, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
    
    180921 17:27:25 MAIN    INFO: A thread created with Id '140594390935680' 
    180921 17:27:25 MAIN    INFO: Starting with following command line ...
    ...
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------
       Parameters Summary         
    -------------------------------------------------------------
       Start LSN                  : 29615616
       End LSN                    : 29651854
    -------------------------------------------------------------
    
    mysqlbackup completed OK!
    

    It is important to check the end of the output by mysqlbackup to make sure the backup has been completed successfully.

  2. The container exits once the backup job is finished and, with the --rm option used to start it, it is removed after it exits. An image backup has been created, and can be found in the host directory mounted in the last step for storing backups:

    shell> ls /tmp/backups
    db.mbi
    

To restore a MySQL Server instance in a Docker container using MySQL Enterprise Backup with Docker:

  1. Stop the MySQL Server container, which also stops the MySQL Server running inside:

    docker stop mysqlserver
  2. On the host, delete all contents in the bind mount for the MySQL Server data directory:

    rm -rf /path-on-host-machine/datadir/*
    
  3. Start a container with an image of MySQL Enterprise Edition to perform the restore with the MySQL Enterprise Backup command copy-back-and-apply-log. Bind-mount the server's data directory and the storage folder for the backups, like what we did when we backed up the server:

    shell> docker run \
    --mount type=bind,src=/path-on-host-machine/datadir/,dst=/var/lib/mysql \
    --mount type=bind,src=/path-on-host-machine/backups/,dst=/data/backups \ 
    --rm mysql/enterprise-server:8.0 \
    mysqlbackup --backup-dir=/tmp/backup-tmp --with-timestamp \
    --datadir=/var/lib/mysql --backup-image=/data/backups/db.mbi copy-back-and-apply-log
    
    [Entrypoint] MySQL Docker Image 8.0.11-1.1.5
    MySQL Enterprise Backup version 8.0.11 Linux-4.1.12-61.1.16.el7uek.x86_64-x86_64 [2018-04-08  07:06:45] 
    Copyright (c) 2003, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
    
    180921 22:06:52 MAIN    INFO: A thread created with Id '139768047519872' 
    180921 22:06:52 MAIN    INFO: Starting with following command line ...
    ...
    180921 22:06:52 PCR1    INFO: We were able to parse ibbackup_logfile up to
              lsn 29680612.
    180921 22:06:52 PCR1    INFO: Last MySQL binlog file position 0 155, file name binlog.000003
    180921 22:06:52 PCR1    INFO: The first data file is '/var/lib/mysql/ibdata1'
                                  and the new created log files are at '/var/lib/mysql'
    180921 22:06:52 MAIN    INFO: No Keyring file to process.
    180921 22:06:52 MAIN    INFO: Apply-log operation completed successfully.
    180921 22:06:52 MAIN    INFO: Full Backup has been restored successfully.
    
    mysqlbackup completed OK! with 3 warnings
    

    The container exits once the backup job is finished and, with the --rm option used when starting it, it is removed after it exits.

  4. Restart the server container, which also restarts the restored server:

    docker restart mysqlserver

    Or, start a new MySQL Server on the restored data directory:

    docker run --name=mysqlserver2 \
    --mount type=bind,src=/path-on-host-machine/datadir/,dst=/var/lib/mysql \
    -d mysql/enterprise-server:8.0

    Log on to the server to check that the server is running with the restored data.

Docker Environment Variables

When you create a MySQL Server container, you can configure the MySQL instance by using the --env option (-e in short) and specifying one or more of the following environment variables.

Notes
  • None of the variables below has any effect if the data directory you mount is not empty, as no server initialization is going to be attempted then (see Persisting Data and Configuration Changes for more details). Any pre-existing contents in the folder, including any old server settings, are not modified during the container startup.

  • The boolean variables including MYSQL_RANDOM_ROOT_PASSWORD, MYSQL_ONETIME_PASSWORD, MYSQL_ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD, and MYSQL_LOG_CONSOLE are made true by setting them with any strings of nonzero lengths. Therefore, setting them to, for example, 0, false, or no does not make them false, but actually makes them true. This is a known issue of the MySQL Server containers.

  • MYSQL_RANDOM_ROOT_PASSWORD: When this variable is true (which is its default state, unless MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD is set or MYSQL_ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD is set to true), a random password for the server's root user is generated when the Docker container is started. The password is printed to stdout of the container and can be found by looking at the container’s log (see Starting a MySQL Server Instance).

  • MYSQL_ONETIME_PASSWORD: When the variable is true (which is its default state, unless MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD is set or MYSQL_ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD is set to true), the root user's password is set as expired and must be changed before MySQL can be used normally.

  • MYSQL_DATABASE: This variable allows you to specify the name of a database to be created on image startup. If a user name and a password are supplied with MYSQL_USER and MYSQL_PASSWORD, the user is created and granted superuser access to this database (corresponding to GRANT ALL). The specified database is created by a CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXIST statement, so that the variable has no effect if the database already exists.

  • MYSQL_USER, MYSQL_PASSWORD: These variables are used in conjunction to create a user and set that user's password, and the user is granted superuser permissions for the database specified by the MYSQL_DATABASE variable. Both MYSQL_USER and MYSQL_PASSWORD are required for a user to be created—if any of the two variables is not set, the other is ignored. If both variables are set but MYSQL_DATABASE is not, the user is created without any privileges.

    Note

    There is no need to use this mechanism to create the root superuser, which is created by default with the password set by either one of the mechanisms discussed in the descriptions for MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD and MYSQL_RANDOM_ROOT_PASSWORD, unless MYSQL_ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD is true.

  • MYSQL_ROOT_HOST: By default, MySQL creates the 'root'@'localhost' account. This account can only be connected to from inside the container as described in Connecting to MySQL Server from within the Container. To allow root connections from other hosts, set this environment variable. For example, the value 172.17.0.1, which is the default Docker gateway IP, allows connections from the host machine that runs the container. The option accepts only one entry, but wildcards are allowed (for example, MYSQL_ROOT_HOST=172.*.*.* or MYSQL_ROOT_HOST=%).

  • MYSQL_LOG_CONSOLE: When the variable is true (which is its default state for MySQL 8.0 server containers), the MySQL Server's error log is redirected to stderr, so that the error log goes into the Docker container's log and is viewable using the docker logs mysqld-container command.

    Note

    The variable has no effect if a server configuration file from the host has been mounted (see Persisting Data and Configuration Changes on bind-mounting a configuration file).

  • MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: This variable specifies a password that is set for the MySQL root account.

    Warning

    Setting the MySQL root user password on the command line is insecure. As an alternative to specifying the password explicitly, you can set the variable with a container file path for a password file, and then mount a file from your host that contains the password at the container file path. This is still not very secure, as the location of the password file is still exposed. It is preferable to use the default settings of MYSQL_RANDOM_ROOT_PASSWORD and MYSQL_ONETIME_PASSWORD both being true.

  • MYSQL_ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD. Set it to true to allow the container to be started with a blank password for the root user.

    Warning

    Setting this variable to true is insecure, because it is going to leave your MySQL instance completely unprotected, allowing anyone to gain complete superuser access. It is preferable to use the default settings of MYSQL_RANDOM_ROOT_PASSWORD and MYSQL_ONETIME_PASSWORD both being true.

2.5.6.3 Deploying MySQL on Windows and Other Non-Linux Platforms with Docker

Warning

The MySQL Docker images provided by Oracle are built specifically for Linux platforms. Other platforms are not supported, and users running the MySQL Docker images from Oracle on them are doing so at their own risk. This section discusses some known issues for the images when used on non-Linux platforms.

Known Issues for using the MySQL Server Docker images from Oracle on Windows include:

  • If you are bind-mounting on the container's MySQL data directory (see Persisting Data and Configuration Changes for details), you have to set the location of the server socket file with the --socket option to somewhere outside of the MySQL data directory; otherwise, the server will fail to start. This is because the way Docker for Windows handles file mounting does not allow a host file from being bind-mounted on the socket file.

2.5.7 Installing MySQL on Linux from the Native Software Repositories

Many Linux distributions include a version of the MySQL server, client tools, and development components in their native software repositories and can be installed with the platforms' standard package management systems. This section provides basic instructions for installing MySQL using those package management systems.

Important

Native packages are often several versions behind the currently available release. You will also normally be unable to install development milestone releases (DMRs), as these are not usually made available in the native repositories. Before proceeding, we recommend that you check out the other installation options described in Section 2.5, “Installing MySQL on Linux”.

Distribution specific instructions are shown below:

  • Red Hat Linux, Fedora, CentOS

    Note

    For a number of Linux distributions, you can install MySQL using the MySQL Yum repository instead of the platform's native software repository. See Section 2.5.1, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL Yum Repository” for details.

    For Red Hat and similar distributions, the MySQL distribution is divided into a number of separate packages, mysql for the client tools, mysql-server for the server and associated tools, and mysql-libs for the libraries. The libraries are required if you want to provide connectivity from different languages and environments such as Perl, Python and others.

    To install, use the yum command to specify the packages that you want to install. For example:

    root-shell> yum install mysql mysql-server mysql-libs mysql-server
    Loaded plugins: presto, refresh-packagekit
    Setting up Install Process
    Resolving Dependencies
    --> Running transaction check
    ---> Package mysql.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13 set to be updated
    ---> Package mysql-libs.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13 set to be updated
    ---> Package mysql-server.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13 set to be updated
    --> Processing Dependency: perl-DBD-MySQL for package: mysql-server-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64
    --> Running transaction check
    ---> Package perl-DBD-MySQL.x86_64 0:4.017-1.fc13 set to be updated
    --> Finished Dependency Resolution
    
    Dependencies Resolved
    
    ================================================================================
     Package               Arch          Version               Repository      Size
    ================================================================================
    Installing:
     mysql                 x86_64        5.1.48-2.fc13         updates        889 k
     mysql-libs            x86_64        5.1.48-2.fc13         updates        1.2 M
     mysql-server          x86_64        5.1.48-2.fc13         updates        8.1 M
    Installing for dependencies:
     perl-DBD-MySQL        x86_64        4.017-1.fc13          updates        136 k
    
    Transaction Summary
    ================================================================================
    Install       4 Package(s)
    Upgrade       0 Package(s)
    
    Total download size: 10 M
    Installed size: 30 M
    Is this ok [y/N]: y
    Downloading Packages:
    Setting up and reading Presto delta metadata
    Processing delta metadata
    Package(s) data still to download: 10 M
    (1/4): mysql-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64.rpm                    | 889 kB     00:04
    (2/4): mysql-libs-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64.rpm               | 1.2 MB     00:06
    (3/4): mysql-server-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64.rpm             | 8.1 MB     00:40
    (4/4): perl-DBD-MySQL-4.017-1.fc13.x86_64.rpm            | 136 kB     00:00
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total                                           201 kB/s |  10 MB     00:52
    Running rpm_check_debug
    Running Transaction Test
    Transaction Test Succeeded
    Running Transaction
      Installing     : mysql-libs-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64                          1/4
      Installing     : mysql-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64                               2/4
      Installing     : perl-DBD-MySQL-4.017-1.fc13.x86_64                       3/4
      Installing     : mysql-server-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64                        4/4
    
    Installed:
      mysql.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13            mysql-libs.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13
      mysql-server.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13
    
    Dependency Installed:
      perl-DBD-MySQL.x86_64 0:4.017-1.fc13
    
    Complete!
    

    MySQL and the MySQL server should now be installed. A sample configuration file is installed into /etc/my.cnf. An init script, to start and stop the server, will have been installed into /etc/init.d/mysqld. To start the MySQL server use service:

    root-shell> service mysqld start
    

    To enable the server to be started and stopped automatically during boot, use chkconfig:

    root-shell> chkconfig --levels 235 mysqld on
    

    Which enables the MySQL server to be started (and stopped) automatically at the specified the run levels.

    The database tables will have been automatically created for you, if they do not already exist. You should, however, run mysql_secure_installation to set the root passwords on your server.

  • Debian, Ubuntu, Kubuntu

    Note

    For supported Debian and Ubuntu versions, MySQL can be installed using the MySQL APT Repository instead of the platform's native software repository. See Section 2.5.2, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL APT Repository” for details.

    On Debian and related distributions, there are two packages for MySQL in their software repositories, mysql-client and mysql-server, for the client and server components respectively. You should specify an explicit version, for example mysql-client-5.1, to ensure that you install the version of MySQL that you want.

    To download and install, including any dependencies, use the apt-get command, specifying the packages that you want to install.

    Note

    Before installing, make sure that you update your apt-get index files to ensure you are downloading the latest available version.

    A sample installation of the MySQL packages might look like this (some sections trimmed for clarity):

    root-shell> apt-get install mysql-client-5.1 mysql-server-5.1
    Reading package lists... Done
    Building dependency tree
    Reading state information... Done
    The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required:
      linux-headers-2.6.28-11 linux-headers-2.6.28-11-generic
    Use 'apt-get autoremove' to remove them.
    The following extra packages will be installed:
      bsd-mailx libdbd-mysql-perl libdbi-perl libhtml-template-perl
      libmysqlclient15off libmysqlclient16 libnet-daemon-perl libplrpc-perl mailx
      mysql-common postfix
    Suggested packages:
      dbishell libipc-sharedcache-perl tinyca procmail postfix-mysql postfix-pgsql
      postfix-ldap postfix-pcre sasl2-bin resolvconf postfix-cdb
    The following NEW packages will be installed
      bsd-mailx libdbd-mysql-perl libdbi-perl libhtml-template-perl
      libmysqlclient15off libmysqlclient16 libnet-daemon-perl libplrpc-perl mailx
      mysql-client-5.1 mysql-common mysql-server-5.1 postfix
    0 upgraded, 13 newly installed, 0 to remove and 182 not upgraded.
    Need to get 1907kB/25.3MB of archives.
    After this operation, 59.5MB of additional disk space will be used.
    Do you want to continue [Y/n]? Y
    Get: 1 http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com jaunty-updates/main mysql-common 5.1.30really5.0.75-0ubuntu10.5 [63.6kB]
    Get: 2 http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com jaunty-updates/main libmysqlclient15off 5.1.30really5.0.75-0ubuntu10.5 [1843kB]
    Fetched 1907kB in 9s (205kB/s)
    Preconfiguring packages ...
    Selecting previously deselected package mysql-common.
    (Reading database ... 121260 files and directories currently installed.)
    ...
    Processing 1 added doc-base file(s)...
    Registering documents with scrollkeeper...
    Setting up libnet-daemon-perl (0.43-1) ...
    Setting up libplrpc-perl (0.2020-1) ...
    Setting up libdbi-perl (1.607-1) ...
    Setting up libmysqlclient15off (5.1.30really5.0.75-0ubuntu10.5) ...
    
    Setting up libdbd-mysql-perl (4.008-1) ...
    Setting up libmysqlclient16 (5.1.31-1ubuntu2) ...
    
    Setting up mysql-client-5.1 (5.1.31-1ubuntu2) ...
    
    Setting up mysql-server-5.1 (5.1.31-1ubuntu2) ...
     * Stopping MySQL database server mysqld
       ...done.
    2013-09-24T13:03:09.048353Z 0 [Note] InnoDB: 8.0.19 started; log sequence number 1566036
    2013-09-24T13:03:10.057269Z 0 [Note] InnoDB: Starting shutdown...
    2013-09-24T13:03:10.857032Z 0 [Note] InnoDB: Shutdown completed; log sequence number 1566036
     * Starting MySQL database server mysqld
       ...done.
     * Checking for corrupt, not cleanly closed and upgrade needing tables.
    ...
    Processing triggers for libc6 ...
    ldconfig deferred processing now taking place
    
    Note

    The apt-get command will install a number of packages, including the MySQL server, in order to provide the typical tools and application environment. This can mean that you install a large number of packages in addition to the main MySQL package.

    During installation, the initial database will be created, and you will be prompted for the MySQL root password (and confirmation). A configuration file will have been created in /etc/mysql/my.cnf. An init script will have been created in /etc/init.d/mysql.

    The server will already be started. You can manually start and stop the server using:

    root-shell> service mysql [start|stop]
    

    The service will automatically be added to the 2, 3 and 4 run levels, with stop scripts in the single, shutdown and restart levels.

2.5.8 Installing MySQL on Linux with Juju

The Juju deployment framework supports easy installation and configuration of MySQL servers. For instructions, see https://jujucharms.com/mysql/.

2.5.9 Managing MySQL Server with systemd

If you install MySQL using an RPM or Debian package on the following Linux platforms, server startup and shutdown is managed by systemd:

  • RPM package platforms:

    • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7; Oracle Linux 7; CentOS 7

    • SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12

    • Fedora 29 and 30

  • Debian package platforms:

    • Debian 8 or higher

    • Ubuntu 16 or higher

If you install MySQL from a generic binary distribution on a platform that uses systemd, you can manually configure systemd support for MySQL following the instructions provided in the post-installation setup section of the MySQL 8.0 Secure Deployment Guide.

If you install MySQL from a source distribution on a platform that uses systemd, obtain systemd support for MySQL by configuring the distribution using the -DWITH_SYSTEMD=1 CMake option. See Section 2.9.7, “MySQL Source-Configuration Options”.

The following discussion covers these topics:

Note

On platforms for which systemd support for MySQL is installed, scripts such as mysqld_safe and the System V initialization script are unnecessary and are not installed. For example, mysqld_safe can handle server restarts, but systemd provides the same capability, and does so in a manner consistent with management of other services rather than by using an application-specific program.

Because systemd has the capability of managing multiple MySQL instances on platforms for which systemd support for MySQL is installed, mysqld_multi and mysqld_multi.server are unnecessary and are not installed.

Overview of systemd

systemd provides automatic MySQL server startup and shutdown. It also enables manual server management using the systemctl command. For example:

systemctl {start|stop|restart|status} mysqld

Alternatively, use the service command (with the arguments reversed), which is compatible with System V systems:

service mysqld {start|stop|restart|status}
Note

For the systemctl or service commands, if the MySQL service name is not mysqld, use the appropriate name. For example, use mysql rather than mysqld on Debian-based and SLES systems.

Support for systemd includes these files:

  • mysqld.service (RPM platforms), mysql.service (Debian platforms): systemd service unit configuration file, with details about the MySQL service.

  • mysqld@.service (RPM platforms), mysql@.service (Debian platforms): Like mysqld.service or mysql.service, but used for managing multiple MySQL instances.

  • mysqld.tmpfiles.d: File containing information to support the tmpfiles feature. This file is installed under the name mysql.conf.

  • mysqld_pre_systemd (RPM platforms), mysql-system-start (Debian platforms): Support script for the unit file. This script assists in creating the error log file only if the log location matches a pattern (/var/log/mysql*.log for RPM platforms, /var/log/mysql/*.log for Debian platforms). In other cases, the error log directory must be writable or the error log must be present and writable for the user running the mysqld process.

Configuring systemd for MySQL

To add or change systemd options for MySQL, these methods are available:

  • Use a localized systemd configuration file.

  • Arrange for systemd to set environment variables for the MySQL server process.

  • Set the MYSQLD_OPTS systemd variable.

To use a localized systemd configuration file, create the /etc/systemd/system/mysqld.service.d directory if it does not exist. In that directory, create a file that contains a [Service] section listing the desired settings. For example:

[Service]
LimitNOFILE=max_open_files
PIDFile=/path/to/pid/file
Nice=nice_level
LimitCore=core_file_limit
Environment="LD_PRELOAD=/path/to/malloc/library"
Environment="TZ=time_zone_setting"

The discussion here uses override.conf as the name of this file. Newer versions of systemd support the following command, which opens an editor and permits you to edit the file:

systemctl edit mysqld  # RPM platforms
systemctl edit mysql   # Debian platforms

Whenever you create or change override.conf, reload the systemd configuration, then tell systemd to restart the MySQL service:

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl restart mysqld  # RPM platforms
systemctl restart mysql   # Debian platforms

With systemd, the override.conf configuration method must be used for certain parameters, rather than settings in a [mysqld] or [mysqld_safe] group in a MySQL option file:

  • For some parameters, override.conf must be used because systemd itself must know their values and it cannot read MySQL option files to get them.

  • Parameters that specify values otherwise settable only using options known to mysqld_safe must be specified using systemd because there is no corresponding mysqld parameter.

For additional information about using systemd rather than mysqld_safe, see Migrating from mysqld_safe to systemd.

You can set the following parameters in override.conf:

  • To specify the process ID file, use override.conf and change both PIDFile and ExecStart to name the PID file path name. Any setting of the process ID file in MySQL option files is ignored. To modify ExecStart, it must first be cleared. For example:

    [Service]
    PIDFile=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld-custom.pid
    ExecStart=
    ExecStart=/usr/sbin/mysqld --pid-file=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld-custom.pid $MYSQLD_OPTS
    
  • To set the number of file descriptors available to the MySQL server, use LimitNOFILE in override.conf rather than the open_files_limit system variable for mysqld or --open-files-limit option for mysqld_safe.

  • To set the maximum core file size, use LimitCore in override.conf rather than the --core-file-size option for mysqld_safe.

  • To set the scheduling priority for the MySQL server, use Nice in override.conf rather than the --nice option for mysqld_safe.

Some MySQL parameters are configured using environment variables:

  • LD_PRELOAD: Set this variable if the MySQL server should use a specific memory-allocation library.

  • NOTIFY_SOCKET: This environment variable specifies the socket that mysqld uses to communicate notification of startup completion and service status change with systemd. It is set by systemd when the mysqld service is started. The mysqld service reads the variable setting and writes to the defined location. If the variable is not set, mysqld writes nothing.

  • TZ: Set this variable to specify the default time zone for the server.

There are multiple ways to specify environment variable values for use by the MySQL server process managed by systemd:

  • Use Environment lines in the override.conf file. For the syntax, see the example in the preceding discussion that describes how to use this file.

  • Specify the values in the /etc/sysconfig/mysql file (create the file if it does not exist). Assign values using the following syntax:

    LD_PRELOAD=/path/to/malloc/library
    TZ=time_zone_setting
    

    After modifying /etc/sysconfig/mysql, restart the server to make the changes effective:

    systemctl restart mysqld  # RPM platforms
    systemctl restart mysql   # Debian platforms
    

To specify options for mysqld without modifying systemd configuration files directly, set or unset the MYSQLD_OPTS systemd variable. For example:

systemctl set-environment MYSQLD_OPTS="--general_log=1"
systemctl unset-environment MYSQLD_OPTS

MYSQLD_OPTS can also be set in the /etc/sysconfig/mysql file.

After modifying the systemd environment, restart the server to make the changes effective:

systemctl restart mysqld  # RPM platforms
systemctl restart mysql   # Debian platforms

For platforms that use systemd, the data directory is initialized if empty at server startup. This might be a problem if the data directory is a remote mount that has temporarily disappeared: The mount point would appear to be an empty data directory, which then would be initialized as a new data directory. To suppress this automatic initialization behavior, specify the following line in the /etc/sysconfig/mysql file (create the file if it does not exist):

NO_INIT=true

Configuring Multiple MySQL Instances Using systemd

This section describes how to configure systemd for multiple instances of MySQL.

Note

Because systemd has the capability of managing multiple MySQL instances on platforms for which systemd support is installed, mysqld_multi and mysqld_multi.server are unnecessary and are not installed.

To use multiple-instance capability, modify the my.cnf option file to include configuration of key options for each instance. These file locations are typical:

  • /etc/my.cnf or /etc/mysql/my.cnf (RPM platforms)

  • /etc/mysql/mysql.conf.d/mysqld.cnf (Debian platforms)

For example, to manage two instances named replica01 and replica02, add something like this to the option file:

RPM platforms:

[mysqld@replica01]
datadir=/var/lib/mysql-replica01
socket=/var/lib/mysql-replica01/mysql.sock
port=3307
log-error=/var/log/mysqld-replica01.log

[mysqld@replica02]
datadir=/var/lib/mysql-replica02
socket=/var/lib/mysql-replica02/mysql.sock
port=3308
log-error=/var/log/mysqld-replica02.log

Debian platforms:

[mysqld@replica01]
datadir=/var/lib/mysql-replica01
socket=/var/lib/mysql-replica01/mysql.sock
port=3307
log-error=/var/log/mysql/replica01.log

[mysqld@replica02]
datadir=/var/lib/mysql-replica02
socket=/var/lib/mysql-replica02/mysql.sock
port=3308
log-error=/var/log/mysql/replica02.log

The replica names shown here use @ as the delimiter because that is the only delimiter supported by systemd.

Instances then are managed by normal systemd commands, such as:

systemctl start mysqld@replica01
systemctl start mysqld@replica02

To enable instances to run at boot time, do this:

systemctl enable mysqld@replica01
systemctl enable mysqld@replica02

Use of wildcards is also supported. For example, this command displays the status of all replica instances:

systemctl status 'mysqld@replica*'

For management of multiple MySQL instances on the same machine, systemd automatically uses a different unit file:

  • mysqld@.service rather than mysqld.service (RPM platforms)

  • mysql@.service rather than mysql.service (Debian platforms)

In the unit file, %I and %i reference the parameter passed in after the @ marker and are used to manage the specific instance. For a command such as this:

systemctl start mysqld@replica01

systemd starts the server using a command such as this:

mysqld --defaults-group-suffix=@%I ...

The result is that the [server], [mysqld], and [mysqld@replica01] option groups are read and used for that instance of the service.

Note

On Debian platforms, AppArmor prevents the server from reading or writing /var/lib/mysql-replica*, or anything other than the default locations. To address this, you must customize or disable the profile in /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.mysqld.

Note

On Debian platforms, the packaging scripts for MySQL uninstallation cannot currently handle mysqld@ instances. Before removing or upgrading the package, you must stop any extra instances manually first.

Migrating from mysqld_safe to systemd

Because mysqld_safe is not installed on platforms that use systemd to manage MySQL, options previously specified for that program (for example, in an [mysqld_safe] option group) must be specified another way:

  • Some mysqld_safe options are also understood by mysqld and can be moved from the [mysqld_safe] option group to the [mysqld] group. This does not include --pid-file, --open-files-limit, or --nice. To specify those options, use the override.conf systemd file, described previously.

  • For some mysqld_safe options, there are alternative mysqld procedures. For example, the mysqld_safe option for enabling syslog logging is --syslog, which is deprecated. To write error log output to the system log, use the instructions at Section 5.4.2.7, “Error Logging to the System Log”.

  • mysqld_safe options not understood by mysqld can be specified in override.conf or environment variables. For example, with mysqld_safe, if the server should use a specific memory allocation library, this is specified using the --malloc-lib option. For installations that manage the server with systemd, arrange to set the LD_PRELOAD environment variable instead, as described previously.

2.6 Installing MySQL Using Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN)

Linux supports a number of different solutions for installing MySQL, covered in Section 2.5, “Installing MySQL on Linux”. One of the methods, covered in this section, is installing from Oracle's Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN). You can find information about Oracle Linux and ULN under http://linux.oracle.com/.

To use ULN, you need to obtain a ULN login and register the machine used for installation with ULN. This is described in detail in the ULN FAQ. The page also describes how to install and update packages. The MySQL packages are in the MySQL for Oracle Linux 6 and MySQL for Oracle Linux 7 channels for your system architecture on ULN.

Note

At the time of this writing, ULN provides MySQL 8.0 for Oracle Linux 6 and Oracle Linux 7.

Once MySQL has been installed using ULN, you can find information on starting and stopping the server, and more, in this section, particularly under Section 2.5.4, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages from Oracle”.

If you're updating an existing MySQL installation to an installation using ULN, the recommended procedure is to export your data using mysqldump, remove the existing installation, install MySQL from ULN, and load the exported data into your freshly installed MySQL.

If the existing MySQL installation you're upgrading from is from a previous release series (prior to MySQL 8.0), make sure to read the section on upgrading MySQL, Section 2.11, “Upgrading MySQL”.

2.7 Installing MySQL on Solaris

Note

MySQL 8.0 supports Solaris 11.4 and higher

MySQL on Solaris is available in a number of different formats.

Important

The installation packages have a dependency on the Oracle Developer Studio 12.6 Runtime Libraries, which must be installed before you run the MySQL installation package. See the download options for Oracle Developer Studio here. The installation package enables you to install the runtime libraries only instead of the full Oracle Developer Studio; see instructions in Installing Only the Runtime Libraries on Oracle Solaris 11.

To obtain a binary MySQL distribution for Solaris in tarball or PKG format, https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql/8.0.html.

Additional notes to be aware of when installing and using MySQL on Solaris:

  • If you want to use MySQL with the mysql user and group, use the groupadd and useradd commands:

    groupadd mysql
    useradd -g mysql -s /bin/false mysql
    
  • If you install MySQL using a binary tarball distribution on Solaris, because the Solaris tar cannot handle long file names, use GNU tar (gtar) to unpack the distribution. If you do not have GNU tar on your system, install it with the following command:

    pkg install archiver/gnu-tar
    
  • You should mount any file systems on which you intend to store InnoDB files with the forcedirectio option. (By default mounting is done without this option.) Failing to do so will cause a significant drop in performance when using the InnoDB storage engine on this platform.

  • If you would like MySQL to start automatically, you can copy support-files/mysql.server to /etc/init.d and create a symbolic link to it named /etc/rc3.d/S99mysql.server.

  • If too many processes try to connect very rapidly to mysqld, you should see this error in the MySQL log:

    Error in accept: Protocol error
    

    You might try starting the server with the --back_log=50 option as a workaround for this.

  • To configure the generation of core files on Solaris you should use the coreadm command. Because of the security implications of generating a core on a setuid() application, by default, Solaris does not support core files on setuid() programs. However, you can modify this behavior using coreadm. If you enable setuid() core files for the current user, they will be generated using the mode 600 and owned by the superuser.

2.7.1 Installing MySQL on Solaris Using a Solaris PKG

You can install MySQL on Solaris using a binary package of the native Solaris PKG format instead of the binary tarball distribution.

Important

The installation package has a dependency on the Oracle Developer Studio 12.6 Runtime Libraries, which must be installed before you run the MySQL installation package. See the download options for Oracle Developer Studio here. The installation package enables you to install the runtime libraries only instead of the full Oracle Developer Studio; see instructions in Installing Only the Runtime Libraries on Oracle Solaris 11.

To use this package, download the corresponding mysql-VERSION-solaris11-PLATFORM.pkg.gz file, then uncompress it. For example:

shell> gunzip mysql-8.0.19-solaris11-x86_64.pkg.gz

To install a new package, use pkgadd and follow the onscreen prompts. You must have root privileges to perform this operation:

shell> pkgadd -d mysql-8.0.19-solaris11-x86_64.pkg

The following packages are available:
  1  mysql     MySQL Community Server (GPL)
               (i86pc) 8.0.19

Select package(s) you wish to process (or 'all' to process
all packages). (default: all) [?,??,q]:

The PKG installer installs all of the files and tools needed, and then initializes your database if one does not exist. To complete the installation, you should set the root password for MySQL as provided in the instructions at the end of the installation. Alternatively, you can run the mysql_secure_installation script that comes with the installation.

By default, the PKG package installs MySQL under the root path /opt/mysql. You can change only the installation root path when using pkgadd, which can be used to install MySQL in a different Solaris zone. If you need to install in a specific directory, use a binary tar file distribution.

The pkg installer copies a suitable startup script for MySQL into /etc/init.d/mysql. To enable MySQL to startup and shutdown automatically, you should create a link between this file and the init script directories. For example, to ensure safe startup and shutdown of MySQL you could use the following commands to add the right links:

shell> ln /etc/init.d/mysql /etc/rc3.d/S91mysql
shell> ln /etc/init.d/mysql /etc/rc0.d/K02mysql

To remove MySQL, the installed package name is mysql. You can use this in combination with the pkgrm command to remove the installation.

To upgrade when using the Solaris package file format, you must remove the existing installation before installing the updated package. Removal of the package does not delete the existing database information, only the server, binaries and support files. The typical upgrade sequence is therefore:

shell> mysqladmin shutdown
shell> pkgrm mysql
shell> pkgadd -d mysql-8.0.19-solaris11-x86_64.pkg
shell> mysqld_safe &
shell> mysql_upgrade   # prior to MySQL 8.0.16 only

You should check the notes in Section 2.11, “Upgrading MySQL” before performing any upgrade.

2.8 Installing MySQL on FreeBSD

This section provides information about installing MySQL on variants of FreeBSD Unix.

You can install MySQL on FreeBSD by using the binary distribution provided by Oracle. For more information, see Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”.

The easiest (and preferred) way to install MySQL is to use the mysql-server and mysql-client ports available at http://www.freebsd.org/. Using these ports gives you the following benefits:

  • A working MySQL with all optimizations enabled that are known to work on your version of FreeBSD.

  • Automatic configuration and build.

  • Startup scripts installed in /usr/local/etc/rc.d.

  • The ability to use pkg_info -L to see which files are installed.

  • The ability to use pkg_delete to remove MySQL if you no longer want it on your machine.

The MySQL build process requires GNU make (gmake) to work. If GNU make is not available, you must install it first before compiling MySQL.

Note

Prerequisite libraries as per ldd mysqld: libthr, libcrypt, libm, librt, libexecinfo, libunwind, and libssl.

To install using the ports system:

# cd /usr/ports/databases/mysql80-server
# make
...
# cd /usr/ports/databases/mysql80-client
# make
...

The standard port installation places the server into /usr/local/libexec/mysqld, with the startup script for the MySQL server placed in /usr/local/etc/rc.d/mysql-server.

Some additional notes on the BSD implementation:

  • To remove MySQL after installation using the ports system:

    # cd /usr/ports/databases/mysql80-server
    # make deinstall
    ...
    # cd /usr/ports/databases/mysql80-client
    # make deinstall
    ...
    
  • If you get problems with the current date in MySQL, setting the TZ variable should help. See Section 4.9, “MySQL Environment Variables”.

2.9 Installing MySQL from Source

Building MySQL from the source code enables you to customize build parameters, compiler optimizations, and installation location. For a list of systems on which MySQL is known to run, see https://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html.

Before you proceed with an installation from source, check whether Oracle produces a precompiled binary distribution for your platform and whether it works for you. We put a great deal of effort into ensuring that our binaries are built with the best possible options for optimal performance. Instructions for installing binary distributions are available in Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”.

Warning

Building MySQL with nonstandard options may lead to reduced functionality, performance, or security.

The MySQL source code contains internal documentation written using Doxygen. The generated Doxygen content is available at https://dev.mysql.com/doc/index-other.html. It is also possible to generate this content locally from a MySQL source distribution using the instructions at Section 2.9.10, “Generating MySQL Doxygen Documentation Content”.

2.9.1 Source Installation Methods

There are two methods for installing MySQL from source:

  • Use a standard MySQL source distribution. To obtain a standard distribution, see Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”. For instructions on building from a standard distribution, see Section 2.9.4, “Installing MySQL Using a Standard Source Distribution”.

    Standard distributions are available as compressed tar files, Zip archives, or RPM packages. Distribution files have names of the form mysql-VERSION.tar.gz, mysql-VERSION.zip, or mysql-VERSION.rpm, where VERSION is a number like 8.0.19. File names for source distributions can be distinguished from those for precompiled binary distributions in that source distribution names are generic and include no platform name, whereas binary distribution names include a platform name indicating the type of system for which the distribution is intended (for example, pc-linux-i686 or winx64).

  • Use a MySQL development tree. For information on building from one of the development trees, see Section 2.9.5, “Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree”.

2.9.2 Source Installation Prerequisites

Installation of MySQL from source requires several development tools. Some of these tools are needed no matter whether you use a standard source distribution or a development source tree. Other tool requirements depend on which installation method you use.

To install MySQL from source, the following system requirements must be satisfied, regardless of installation method:

  • CMake, which is used as the build framework on all platforms. CMake can be downloaded from http://www.cmake.org.

  • A good make program. Although some platforms come with their own make implementations, it is highly recommended that you use GNU make 3.75 or higher. It may already be available on your system as gmake. GNU make is available from http://www.gnu.org/software/make/.

  • MySQL 8.0 source code permits use of C++14 features. To enable a good level of C++14 support across all supported platforms, the following minimum compiler versions apply:

    • GCC 5.3 (Linux)

    • Clang 4.0 (FreeBSD)

    • XCode 9 (MacOS)

    • Developer Studio 12.6 (Solaris)

    • Visual Studio 2017 (Windows)

  • The MySQL C API requires a C++ or C99 compiler to compile.

  • An SSL library is required for support of encrypted connections, entropy for random number generation, and other encryption-related operations. By default, the build uses the OpenSSL library installed on the host system. To specify the library explicitly, use the WITH_SSL option when you invoke CMake. For additional information, see Section 2.9.6, “Configuring SSL Library Support”.

  • The Boost C++ libraries are required to build MySQL (but not to use it). MySQL compilation requires a particular Boost version. Typically, that is the current Boost version, but if a specific MySQL source distribution requires a different version, the configuration process will stop with a message indicating the Boost version that it requires. To obtain Boost and its installation instructions, visit the official site. After Boost is installed, tell the build system where the Boost files are located by defining the WITH_BOOST option when you invoke CMake. For example:

    cmake . -DWITH_BOOST=/usr/local/boost_version_number
    

    Adjust the path as necessary to match your installation.

  • The ncurses library.

  • Sufficient free memory. If you encounter problems such as internal compiler error when compiling large source files, it may be that you have too little memory. If compiling on a virtual machine, try increasing the memory allocation.

  • Perl is needed if you intend to run test scripts. Most Unix-like systems include Perl. On Windows, you can use a version such as ActiveState Perl.

To install MySQL from a standard source distribution, one of the following tools is required to unpack the distribution file:

  • For a .tar.gz compressed tar file: GNU gunzip to uncompress the distribution and a reasonable tar to unpack it. If your tar program supports the z option, it can both uncompress and unpack the file.

    GNU tar is known to work. The standard tar provided with some operating systems is not able to unpack the long file names in the MySQL distribution. You should download and install GNU tar, or if available, use a preinstalled version of GNU tar. Usually this is available as gnutar, gtar, or as tar within a GNU or Free Software directory, such as /usr/sfw/bin or /usr/local/bin. GNU tar is available from http://www.gnu.org/software/tar/.

  • For a .zip Zip archive: WinZip or another tool that can read .zip files.

  • For an .rpm RPM package: The rpmbuild program used to build the distribution unpacks it.

To install MySQL from a development source tree, the following additional tools are required:

  • The Git revision control system is required to obtain the development source code. The GitHub Help provides instructions for downloading and installing Git on different platforms. MySQL officially joined GitHub in September, 2014. For more information about MySQL's move to GitHub, refer to the announcement on the MySQL Release Engineering blog: MySQL on GitHub

  • bison 2.1 or higher, available from http://www.gnu.org/software/bison/. (Version 1 is no longer supported.) Use the latest version of bison where possible; if you experience problems, upgrade to a later version, rather than revert to an earlier one.

    bison is available from http://www.gnu.org/software/bison/. bison for Windows can be downloaded from http://gnuwin32.sourceforge.net/packages/bison.htm. Download the package labeled Complete package, excluding sources. On Windows, the default location for bison is the C:\Program Files\GnuWin32 directory. Some utilities may fail to find bison because of the space in the directory name. Also, Visual Studio may simply hang if there are spaces in the path. You can resolve these problems by installing into a directory that does not contain a space (for example C:\GnuWin32).

  • On Solaris Express, m4 must be installed in addition to bison. m4 is available from http://www.gnu.org/software/m4/.

Note

If you have to install any programs, modify your PATH environment variable to include any directories in which the programs are located. See Section 4.2.7, “Setting Environment Variables”.

If you run into problems and need to file a bug report, please use the instructions in Section 1.7, “How to Report Bugs or Problems”.

2.9.3 MySQL Layout for Source Installation

By default, when you install MySQL after compiling it from source, the installation step installs files under /usr/local/mysql. The component locations under the installation directory are the same as for binary distributions. See Table 2.3, “MySQL Installation Layout for Generic Unix/Linux Binary Package”, and Section 2.3.1, “MySQL Installation Layout on Microsoft Windows”. To configure installation locations different from the defaults, use the options described at Section 2.9.7, “MySQL Source-Configuration Options”.

2.9.4 Installing MySQL Using a Standard Source Distribution

To install MySQL from a standard source distribution:

  1. Verify that your system satisfies the tool requirements listed at Section 2.9.2, “Source Installation Prerequisites”.

  2. Obtain a distribution file using the instructions in Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”.

  3. Configure, build, and install the distribution using the instructions in this section.

  4. Perform postinstallation procedures using the instructions in Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”.

MySQL uses CMake as the build framework on all platforms. The instructions given here should enable you to produce a working installation. For additional information on using CMake to build MySQL, see How to Build MySQL Server with CMake.

If you start from a source RPM, use the following command to make a binary RPM that you can install. If you do not have rpmbuild, use rpm instead.

shell> rpmbuild --rebuild --clean MySQL-VERSION.src.rpm

The result is one or more binary RPM packages that you install as indicated in Section 2.5.4, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages from Oracle”.

The sequence for installation from a compressed tar file or Zip archive source distribution is similar to the process for installing from a generic binary distribution (see Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”), except that it is used on all platforms and includes steps to configure and compile the distribution. For example, with a compressed tar file source distribution on Unix, the basic installation command sequence looks like this:

# Preconfiguration setup
shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -r -g mysql -s /bin/false mysql
# Beginning of source-build specific instructions
shell> tar zxvf mysql-VERSION.tar.gz
shell> cd mysql-VERSION
shell> mkdir bld
shell> cd bld
shell> cmake ..
shell> make
shell> make install
# End of source-build specific instructions
# Postinstallation setup
shell> cd /usr/local/mysql
shell> mkdir mysql-files
shell> chown mysql:mysql mysql-files
shell> chmod 750 mysql-files
shell> bin/mysqld --initialize --user=mysql
shell> bin/mysql_ssl_rsa_setup
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
# Next command is optional
shell> cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql.server

A more detailed version of the source-build specific instructions is shown following.

Note

The procedure shown here does not set up any passwords for MySQL accounts. After following the procedure, proceed to Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”, for postinstallation setup and testing.

Perform Preconfiguration Setup

On Unix, set up the mysql user and group that will be used to run and execute the MySQL server and own the database directory. For details, see Create a mysql User and Group. Then perform the following steps as the mysql user, except as noted.

Obtain and Unpack the Distribution

Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution and change location into it.

Obtain a distribution file using the instructions in Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”.

Unpack the distribution into the current directory:

  • To unpack a compressed tar file, tar can uncompress and unpack the distribution if it has z option support:

    shell> tar zxvf mysql-VERSION.tar.gz
    

    If your tar does not have z option support, use gunzip to unpack the distribution and tar to unpack it:

    shell> gunzip < mysql-VERSION.tar.gz | tar xvf -
    

    Alternatively, CMake can uncompress and unpack the distribution:

    shell> cmake -E tar zxvf mysql-VERSION.tar.gz
    
  • To unpack a Zip archive, use WinZip or another tool that can read .zip files.

Unpacking the distribution file creates a directory named mysql-VERSION.

Configure the Distribution

Change location into the top-level directory of the unpacked distribution:

shell> cd mysql-VERSION

Build outside of the source tree to keep the tree clean. If the top-level source directory is named mysql-src under your current working directory, you can build in a directory named bld at the same level. Create the directory and go there:

shell> mkdir bld
shell> cd bld

Configure the build directory. The minimum configuration command includes no options to override configuration defaults:

shell> cmake ../mysql-src

The build directory needs not be outside the source tree. For example, you can build in a directory named bld under the top-level source tree. To do this, starting with mysql-src as your current working directory, create the directory bld and then go there:

shell> mkdir bld
shell> cd bld

Configure the build directory. The minimum configuration command includes no options to override configuration defaults:

shell> cmake ..

If you have multiple source trees at the same level (for example, to build multiple versions of MySQL), the second strategy can be advantageous. The first strategy places all build directories at the same level, which requires that you choose a unique name for each. With the second strategy, you can use the same name for the build directory within each source tree. The following instructions assume this second strategy.

On Windows, specify the development environment. For example, the following commands configure MySQL for 32-bit or 64-bit builds, respectively:

shell> cmake .. -G "Visual Studio 12 2013"
shell> cmake .. -G "Visual Studio 12 2013 Win64"

On macOS, to use the Xcode IDE:

shell> cmake .. -G Xcode

When you run cmake, you might want to add options to the command line. Here are some examples:

For a more extensive list of options, see Section 2.9.7, “MySQL Source-Configuration Options”.

To list the configuration options, use one of the following commands:

shell> cmake .. -L   # overview
shell> cmake .. -LH  # overview with help text
shell> cmake .. -LAH # all params with help text
shell> ccmake ..     # interactive display

If CMake fails, you might need to reconfigure by running it again with different options. If you do reconfigure, take note of the following:

  • If CMake is run after it has previously been run, it may use information that was gathered during its previous invocation. This information is stored in CMakeCache.txt. When CMake starts, it looks for that file and reads its contents if it exists, on the assumption that the information is still correct. That assumption is invalid when you reconfigure.

  • Each time you run CMake, you must run make again to recompile. However, you may want to remove old object files from previous builds first because they were compiled using different configuration options.

To prevent old object files or configuration information from being used, run these commands in the build direcotry on Unix before re-running CMake:

shell> make clean
shell> rm CMakeCache.txt

Or, on Windows:

shell> devenv MySQL.sln /clean
shell> del CMakeCache.txt

Before asking on the MySQL Community Slack, check the files in the CMakeFiles directory for useful information about the failure. To file a bug report, please use the instructions in Section 1.7, “How to Report Bugs or Problems”.

Build the Distribution

On Unix:

shell> make
shell> make VERBOSE=1

The second command sets VERBOSE to show the commands for each compiled source.

Use gmake instead on systems where you are using GNU make and it has been installed as gmake.

On Windows:

shell> devenv MySQL.sln /build RelWithDebInfo

If you have gotten to the compilation stage, but the distribution does not build, see Section 2.9.8, “Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL”, for help. If that does not solve the problem, please enter it into our bugs database using the instructions given in Section 1.7, “How to Report Bugs or Problems”. If you have installed the latest versions of the required tools, and they crash trying to process our configuration files, please report that also. However, if you get a command not found error or a similar problem for required tools, do not report it. Instead, make sure that all the required tools are installed and that your PATH variable is set correctly so that your shell can find them.

Install the Distribution

On Unix:

shell> make install

This installs the files under the configured installation directory (by default, /usr/local/mysql). You might need to run the command as root.

To install in a specific directory, add a DESTDIR parameter to the command line:

shell> make install DESTDIR="/opt/mysql"

Alternatively, generate installation package files that you can install where you like:

shell> make package

This operation produces one or more .tar.gz files that can be installed like generic binary distribution packages. See Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”. If you run CMake with -DCPACK_MONOLITHIC_INSTALL=1, the operation produces a single file. Otherwise, it produces multiple files.

On Windows, generate the data directory, then create a .zip archive installation package:

shell> devenv MySQL.sln /build RelWithDebInfo /project initial_database
shell> devenv MySQL.sln /build RelWithDebInfo /project package

You can install the resulting .zip archive where you like. See Section 2.3.4, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall ZIP Archive”.

Perform Postinstallation Setup

The remainder of the installation process involves setting up the configuration file, creating the core databases, and starting the MySQL server. For instructions, see Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”.

Note

The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially have no passwords. After starting the server, you should set up passwords for them using the instructions in Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”.

2.9.5 Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree

This section describes how to install MySQL from the latest development source code, which is hosted on GitHub. To obtain the MySQL Server source code from this repository hosting service, you can set up a local MySQL Git repository.

On GitHub, MySQL Server and other MySQL projects are found on the MySQL page. The MySQL Server project is a single repository that contains branches for several MySQL series.

MySQL officially joined GitHub in September, 2014. For more information about MySQL's move to GitHub, refer to the announcement on the MySQL Release Engineering blog: MySQL on GitHub

Prerequisites for Installing from Development Source

To install MySQL from a development source tree, your system must satisfy the tool requirements listed at Section 2.9.2, “Source Installation Prerequisites”.

Setting Up a MySQL Git Repository

To set up a MySQL Git repository on your machine, use this procedure:

  1. Clone the MySQL Git repository to your machine. The following command clones the MySQL Git repository to a directory named mysql-server. The initial download will take some time to complete, depending on the speed of your connection.

    ~$ git clone https://github.com/mysql/mysql-server.git
    Cloning into 'mysql-server'...
    remote: Counting objects: 1198513, done.
    remote: Total 1198513 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 1198513
    Receiving objects: 100% (1198513/1198513), 1.01 GiB | 7.44 MiB/s, done.
    Resolving deltas: 100% (993200/993200), done.
    Checking connectivity... done.
    Checking out files: 100% (25510/25510), done.
  2. When the clone operation completes, the contents of your local MySQL Git repository appear similar to the following:

    ~$ cd mysql-server
    ~/mysql-server$ ls
    BUILD                cmd-line-utils       libservices          sql
    CMakeLists.txt       config.h.cmake       man                  sql-common
    COPYING              configure.cmake      mysql-test           storage
    Docs                 dbug                 mysys                strings
    Doxyfile-perfschema  extra                mysys_ssl            support-files
    INSTALL              include              packaging            testclients
    README               libbinlogevents      plugin               unittest
    VERSION              libbinlogstandalone  rapid                vio
    client               libevent             regex                win
    cmake                libmysql             scripts              zlib
    
  3. Use the git branch -r command to view the remote tracking branches for the MySQL repository.

    ~/mysql-server$ git branch -r
      origin/5.5
      origin/5.6
      origin/5.7
      origin/8.0
      origin/HEAD -> origin/5.7
      origin/cluster-7.2
      origin/cluster-7.3
      origin/cluster-7.4
      origin/cluster-7.5
    
  4. To view the branches that are checked out in your local repository, issue the git branch command. When you cloned the MySQL Git repository, the MySQL 5.7 branch was checked out automatically. The asterisk identifies the 5.7 branch as the active branch.

    ~/mysql-server$ git branch
    * 5.7
  5. To check out a different MySQL branch, run the git checkout command, specifying the branch name. For example, to check out the MySQL 8.0 branch:

    ~/mysql-server$ git checkout 8.0
    Checking out files: 100% (9600/9600), done.
    Branch 8.0 set up to track remote branch 8.0 from origin.
    Switched to a new branch '8.0'
  6. Run git branch to verify that the MySQL 8.0 branch is present. MySQL 8.0, which is the last branch you checked out, is marked by an asterisk indicating that it is the active branch.

    ~/mysql-server$ git branch
      5.7
    * 8.0
  7. Use the git checkout command to switch between branches. For example:

    ~/mysql-server$ git checkout 5.7
  8. To obtain changes made after your initial setup of the MySQL Git repository, switch to the branch you want to update and issue the git pull command:

    ~/mysql-server$ git checkout 8.0
    ~/mysql-server$ git pull
    

    To examine the commit history, use the git log option:

    ~/mysql-server$ git log
    

    You can also browse commit history and source code on the GitHub MySQL site.

    If you see changes or code that you have a question about, ask on the MySQL Community Slack. For information about contributing a patch, see Contributing to MySQL Server.

  9. After you have cloned the MySQL Git repository and have checked out the branch you want to build, you can build MySQL Server from the source code. Instructions are provided in Section 2.9.4, “Installing MySQL Using a Standard Source Distribution”, except that you skip the part about obtaining and unpacking the distribution.

    Be careful about installing a build from a distribution source tree on a production machine. The installation command may overwrite your live release installation. If you already have MySQL installed and do not want to overwrite it, run CMake with values for the CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX, MYSQL_TCP_PORT, and MYSQL_UNIX_ADDR options different from those used by your production server. For additional information about preventing multiple servers from interfering with each other, see Section 5.8, “Running Multiple MySQL Instances on One Machine”.

    Play hard with your new installation. For example, try to make new features crash. Start by running make test. See Section 29.1.2, “The MySQL Test Suite”.

2.9.6 Configuring SSL Library Support

An SSL library is required for support of encrypted connections, entropy for random number generation, and other encryption-related operations.

If you compile MySQL from a source distribution, CMake configures the distribution to use the installed OpenSSL library by default.

To compile using OpenSSL, use this procedure:

  1. Ensure that OpenSSL 1.0.1 or higher is installed on your system. If the installed OpenSSL version is lower than 1.0.1, CMake produces an error at MySQL configuration time. If it is necessary to obtain OpenSSL, visit http://www.openssl.org.

  2. The WITH_SSL CMake option determines which SSL library to use for compiling MySQL (see Section 2.9.7, “MySQL Source-Configuration Options”). The default is -DWITH_SSL=system, which uses OpenSSL. To make this explicit, specify that option on the CMake command line. For example:

    cmake . -DWITH_SSL=system
    

    That command configures the distribution to use the installed OpenSSL library. Alternatively, to explicitly specify the path name to the OpenSSL installation, use the following syntax. This can be useful if you have multiple versions of OpenSSL installed, to prevent CMake from choosing the wrong one:

    cmake . -DWITH_SSL=path_name
    
  3. Compile and install the distribution.

To check whether a mysqld server supports encrypted connections, examine the value of the have_ssl system variable:

mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'have_ssl';
+---------------+-------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------+
| have_ssl      | YES   |
+---------------+-------+

If the value is YES, the server supports encrypted connections. If the value is DISABLED, the server is capable of supporting encrypted connections but was not started with the appropriate --ssl-xxx options to enable encrypted connections to be used; see Section 6.3.1, “Configuring MySQL to Use Encrypted Connections”.

2.9.7 MySQL Source-Configuration Options

The CMake program provides a great deal of control over how you configure a MySQL source distribution. Typically, you do this using options on the CMake command line. For information about options supported by CMake, run either of these commands in the top-level source directory:

cmake . -LH
ccmake .

You can also affect CMake using certain environment variables. See Section 4.9, “MySQL Environment Variables”.

For boolean options, the value may be specified as 1 or ON to enable the option, or as 0 or OFF to disable the option.

Many options configure compile-time defaults that can be overridden at server startup. For example, the CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX, MYSQL_TCP_PORT, and MYSQL_UNIX_ADDR options that configure the default installation base directory location, TCP/IP port number, and Unix socket file can be changed at server startup with the --basedir, --port, and --socket options for mysqld. Where applicable, configuration option descriptions indicate the corresponding mysqld startup option.

The following sections provide more information about CMake options.

CMake Option Reference

The following table shows the available CMake options. In the Default column, PREFIX stands for the value of the CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX option, which specifies the installation base directory. This value is used as the parent location for several of the installation subdirectories.

Table 2.13 MySQL Source-Configuration Option Reference (CMake)

Formats Description Default Introduced Removed
ADD_GDB_INDEX Whether to enable generation of .gdb_index section in binaries 8.0.18
BUILD_CONFIG Use same build options as official releases
BUNDLE_RUNTIME_LIBRARIES Bundle runtime libraries with server MSI and Zip packages for Windows OFF 8.0.11
CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE Type of build to produce RelWithDebInfo
CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS Flags for C++ Compiler
CMAKE_C_FLAGS Flags for C Compiler
CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX Installation base directory /usr/local/mysql
COMPILATION_COMMENT Comment about compilation environment
COMPILATION_COMMENT_SERVER Comment about compilation environment for use by mysqld 8.0.14
CPACK_MONOLITHIC_INSTALL Whether package build produces single file OFF
DEFAULT_CHARSET The default server character set utf8mb4
DEFAULT_COLLATION The default server collation utf8mb4_0900_ai_ci
DISABLE_DATA_LOCK Exclude the performance schema data lock instrumentation OFF
DISABLE_PSI_COND Exclude Performance Schema condition instrumentation OFF
DISABLE_PSI_ERROR Exclude the performance schema server error instrumentation OFF
DISABLE_PSI_FILE Exclude Performance Schema file instrumentation OFF
DISABLE_PSI_IDLE Exclude Performance Schema idle instrumentation OFF
DISABLE_PSI_MEMORY Exclude Performance Schema memory instrumentation OFF
DISABLE_PSI_METADATA Exclude Performance Schema metadata instrumentation OFF
DISABLE_PSI_MUTEX Exclude Performance Schema mutex instrumentation OFF
DISABLE_PSI_PS Exclude the performance schema prepared statements OFF
DISABLE_PSI_RWLOCK Exclude Performance Schema rwlock instrumentation OFF
DISABLE_PSI_SOCKET Exclude Performance Schema socket instrumentation OFF
DISABLE_PSI_SP Exclude Performance Schema stored program instrumentation OFF
DISABLE_PSI_STAGE Exclude Performance Schema stage instrumentation OFF
DISABLE_PSI_STATEMENT Exclude Performance Schema statement instrumentation OFF
DISABLE_PSI_STATEMENT_DIGEST Exclude Performance Schema statements_digest instrumentation OFF
DISABLE_PSI_TABLE Exclude Performance Schema table instrumentation OFF
DISABLE_PSI_THREAD Exclude the performance schema thread instrumentation OFF
DISABLE_PSI_TRANSACTION Exclude the performance schema transaction instrumentation OFF
DISABLE_SHARED Do not build shared libraries, compile position-dependent code OFF 8.0.18
DOWNLOAD_BOOST Whether to download the Boost library OFF
DOWNLOAD_BOOST_TIMEOUT Timeout in seconds for downloading the Boost library 600
ENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE Whether to enable LOCAL for LOAD DATA OFF
ENABLED_PROFILING Whether to enable query profiling code ON
ENABLE_DEBUG_SYNC Whether to enable Debug Sync support ON 8.0.1
ENABLE_DOWNLOADS Whether to download optional files OFF
ENABLE_DTRACE Whether to include DTrace support 8.0.1
ENABLE_EXPERIMENTAL_SYSVARS Whether to enabled experimental InnoDB system variables OFF 8.0.11
ENABLE_GCOV Whether to include gcov support
ENABLE_GPROF Enable gprof (optimized Linux builds only) OFF
FORCE_INSOURCE_BUILD Whether to force an in-source build OFF 8.0.14
FORCE_UNSUPPORTED_COMPILER Whether to permit unsupported compiler OFF
IGNORE_AIO_CHECK With -DBUILD_CONFIG=mysql_release, ignore libaio check OFF
INSTALL_BINDIR User executables directory PREFIX/bin
INSTALL_DOCDIR Documentation directory PREFIX/docs
INSTALL_DOCREADMEDIR README file directory PREFIX
INSTALL_INCLUDEDIR Header file directory PREFIX/include
INSTALL_INFODIR Info file directory PREFIX/docs
INSTALL_LAYOUT Select predefined installation layout STANDALONE
INSTALL_LIBDIR Library file directory PREFIX/lib
INSTALL_MANDIR Manual page directory PREFIX/man
INSTALL_MYSQLKEYRINGDIR Directory for keyring_file plugin data file platform specific
INSTALL_MYSQLSHAREDIR Shared data directory PREFIX/share
INSTALL_MYSQLTESTDIR mysql-test directory PREFIX/mysql-test
INSTALL_PKGCONFIGDIR Directory for mysqlclient.pc pkg-config file INSTALL_LIBDIR/pkgconfig
INSTALL_PLUGINDIR Plugin directory PREFIX/lib/plugin
INSTALL_SBINDIR Server executable directory PREFIX/bin
INSTALL_SECURE_FILE_PRIVDIR secure_file_priv default value platform specific
INSTALL_SHAREDIR aclocal/mysql.m4 installation directory PREFIX/share
INSTALL_STATIC_LIBRARIES Whether to install static libraries ON
INSTALL_SUPPORTFILESDIR Extra support files directory PREFIX/support-files
LINK_RANDOMIZE Whether to randomize order of symbols in mysqld binary OFF 8.0.1
LINK_RANDOMIZE_SEED Seed value for LINK_RANDOMIZE option mysql 8.0.1
MAX_INDEXES Maximum indexes per table 64
MUTEX_TYPE InnoDB mutex type event
MYSQLX_TCP_PORT TCP/IP port number used by X Plugin 33060
MYSQLX_UNIX_ADDR Unix socket file used by X Plugin /tmp/mysqlx.sock
MYSQL_DATADIR Data directory
MYSQL_MAINTAINER_MODE Whether to enable MySQL maintainer-specific development environment OFF
MYSQL_PROJECT_NAME Windows/OS X project name MySQL
MYSQL_TCP_PORT TCP/IP port number 3306
MYSQL_UNIX_ADDR Unix socket file /tmp/mysql.sock
ODBC_INCLUDES ODBC includes directory
ODBC_LIB_DIR ODBC library directory
OPTIMIZER_TRACE Whether to support optimizer tracing
REPRODUCIBLE_BUILD Take extra care to create a build result independent of build location and time 8.0.11
SYSCONFDIR Option file directory
SYSTEMD_PID_DIR Directory for PID file under systemd /var/run/mysqld
SYSTEMD_SERVICE_NAME Name of MySQL service under systemd mysqld
TMPDIR tmpdir default value
USE_LD_GOLD Whether to use GNU gold linker ON 8.0.0
USE_LD_LLD Whether to use llvm lld linker ON 8.0.16
WIN_DEBUG_NO_INLINE Whether to disable function inlining OFF
WITHOUT_xxx_STORAGE_ENGINE Exclude storage engine xxx from build
WITH_ANT Path to Ant for building GCS Java wrapper 8.0.11
WITH_ASAN Enable AddressSanitizer OFF
WITH_ASAN_SCOPE Enable AddressSanitizer -fsanitize-address-use-after-scope Clang flag OFF 8.0.4
WITH_AUTHENTICATION_LDAP Whether to report error if LDAP authentication plugins cannot be built OFF 8.0.2
WITH_AUTHENTICATION_PAM Build PAM authentication plugin OFF
WITH_AWS_SDK Location of Amazon Web Services software development kit 8.0.2
WITH_BOOST The location of the Boost library sources
WITH_CLIENT_PROTOCOL_TRACING Build client-side protocol tracing framework ON
WITH_CURL Location of curl library 8.0.2
WITH_DEBUG Whether to include debugging support OFF
WITH_DEFAULT_COMPILER_OPTIONS Whether to use default compiler options ON
WITH_DEFAULT_FEATURE_SET Whether to use default feature set ON
WITH_EDITLINE Which libedit/editline library to use bundled
WITH_GMOCK Path to googlemock distribution
WITH_ICU Type of ICU support bundled 8.0.4
WITH_INNODB_EXTRA_DEBUG Whether to include extra debugging support for InnoDB. OFF
WITH_INNODB_MEMCACHED Whether to generate memcached shared libraries. OFF
WITH_JEMALLOC Whether to link with -ljemalloc OFF 8.0.16
WITH_KEYRING_TEST Build the keyring test program OFF
WITH_LIBEVENT Which libevent library to use bundled
WITH_LIBWRAP Whether to include libwrap (TCP wrappers) support OFF
WITH_LOCK_ORDER Whether to enable LOCK_ORDER tooling OFF 8.0.17
WITH_LSAN Whether to run LeakSanitizer, without AddressSanitizer OFF 8.0.16
WITH_LTO Enable link-time optimizer OFF 8.0.13
WITH_LZ4 Type of LZ4 library support bundled
WITH_LZMA Type of LZMA library support bundled 8.0.4 8.0.16
WITH_MECAB Compiles MeCab
WITH_MSAN Enable MemorySanitizer OFF
WITH_MSCRT_DEBUG Enable Visual Studio CRT memory leak tracing OFF
WITH_MYSQLX Whether to disable X Protocol ON 8.0.11
WITH_NUMA Set NUMA memory allocation policy
WITH_PROTOBUF Which Protocol Buffers package to use bundled
WITH_RAPID Whether to build rapid development cycle plugins ON
WITH_RAPIDJSON Type of RapidJSON support bundled 8.0.13
WITH_RE2 Type of RE2 library support bundled 8.0.4 8.0.18
WITH_ROUTER Whether to build MySQL Router ON 8.0.16
WITH_SSL Type of SSL support system
WITH_SYSTEMD Enable installation of systemd support files OFF
WITH_SYSTEM_LIBS Set system value of library options not set explicitly OFF 8.0.11
WITH_TEST_TRACE_PLUGIN Build test protocol trace plugin OFF
WITH_TSAN Enable ThreadSanitizer OFF
WITH_UBSAN Enable Undefined Behavior Sanitizer OFF
WITH_UNIT_TESTS Compile MySQL with unit tests ON
WITH_UNIXODBC Enable unixODBC support OFF
WITH_VALGRIND Whether to compile in Valgrind header files OFF
WITH_ZLIB Type of zlib support bundled
WITH_ZSTD Type of zstd support bundled 8.0.18
WITH_xxx_STORAGE_ENGINE Compile storage engine xxx statically into server

General Options

  • -DBUILD_CONFIG=mysql_release

    This option configures a source distribution with the same build options used by Oracle to produce binary distributions for official MySQL releases.

  • -DBUNDLE_RUNTIME_LIBRARIES=bool

    Whether to bundle runtime libraries with server MSI and Zip packages for Windows.

  • -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=type

    The type of build to produce:

    • RelWithDebInfo: Enable optimizations and generate debugging information. This is the default MySQL build type.

    • Release: Enable optimizations but omit debugging information to reduce the build size. This build type was added in MySQL 8.0.13.

    • Debug: Disable optimizations and generate debugging information. This build type is also used if the WITH_DEBUG option is enabled. That is, -DWITH_DEBUG=1 has the same effect as -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Debug.

  • -DCPACK_MONOLITHIC_INSTALL=bool

    This option affects whether the make package operation produces multiple installation package files or a single file. If disabled, the operation produces multiple installation package files, which may be useful if you want to install only a subset of a full MySQL installation. If enabled, it produces a single file for installing everything.

  • -DFORCE_INSOURCE_BUILD=bool

    Defines whether to force an in-source build. Out-of-source builds are recommended, as they permit multiple builds from the same source, and cleanup can be performed quickly by removing the build directory. To force an in-source build, invoke CMake with -DFORCE_INSOURCE_BUILD=ON.

Installation Layout Options

The CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX option indicates the base installation directory. Other options with names of the form INSTALL_xxx that indicate component locations are interpreted relative to the prefix and their values are relative pathnames. Their values should not include the prefix.

  • -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=dir_name

    The installation base directory.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --basedir option.

  • -DINSTALL_BINDIR=dir_name

    Where to install user programs.

  • -DINSTALL_DOCDIR=dir_name

    Where to install documentation.

  • -DINSTALL_DOCREADMEDIR=dir_name

    Where to install README files.

  • -DINSTALL_INCLUDEDIR=dir_name

    Where to install header files.

  • -DINSTALL_INFODIR=dir_name

    Where to install Info files.

  • -DINSTALL_LAYOUT=name

    Select a predefined installation layout:

    • STANDALONE: Same layout as used for .tar.gz and .zip packages. This is the default.

    • RPM: Layout similar to RPM packages.

    • SVR4: Solaris package layout.

    • DEB: DEB package layout (experimental).

    You can select a predefined layout but modify individual component installation locations by specifying other options. For example:

    cmake . -DINSTALL_LAYOUT=SVR4 -DMYSQL_DATADIR=/var/mysql/data
    

    The INSTALL_LAYOUT value determines the default value of the secure_file_priv, keyring_encrypted_file_data, and keyring_file_data system variables. See the descriptions of those variables in Section 5.1.8, “Server System Variables”, and Section 6.4.4.11, “Keyring System Variables”.

  • -DINSTALL_LIBDIR=dir_name

    Where to install library files.

  • -DINSTALL_MANDIR=dir_name

    Where to install manual pages.

  • -DINSTALL_MYSQLKEYRINGDIR=dir_path

    The default directory to use as the location of the keyring_file plugin data file. The default value is platform specific and depends on the value of the INSTALL_LAYOUT CMake option; see the description of the keyring_file_data system variable in Section 5.1.8, “Server System Variables”.

  • -DINSTALL_MYSQLSHAREDIR=dir_name

    Where to install shared data files.

  • -DINSTALL_MYSQLTESTDIR=dir_name

    Where to install the mysql-test directory. To suppress installation of this directory, explicitly set the option to the empty value (-DINSTALL_MYSQLTESTDIR=).

  • -DINSTALL_PKGCONFIGDIR=dir_name

    The directory in which to install the mysqlclient.pc file for use by pkg-config. The default value is INSTALL_LIBDIR/pkgconfig, unless INSTALL_LIBDIR ends with /mysql, in which case that is removed first.

  • -DINSTALL_PLUGINDIR=dir_name

    The location of the plugin directory.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --plugin_dir option.

  • -DINSTALL_SBINDIR=dir_name

    Where to install the mysqld server.

  • -DINSTALL_SECURE_FILE_PRIVDIR=dir_name

    The default value for the secure_file_priv system variable. The default value is platform specific and depends on the value of the INSTALL_LAYOUT CMake option; see the description of the secure_file_priv system variable in Section 5.1.8, “Server System Variables”.

  • -DINSTALL_SHAREDIR=dir_name

    Where to install aclocal/mysql.m4.

  • -DINSTALL_STATIC_LIBRARIES=bool

    Whether to install static libraries. The default is ON. If set to OFF, these libraries are not installed: libmysqlclient.a, libmysqlservices.a.

  • -DINSTALL_SUPPORTFILESDIR=dir_name

    Where to install extra support files.

  • -DLINK_RANDOMIZE=bool

    Whether to randomize the order of symbols in the mysqld binary. The default is OFF. This option should be enabled only for debugging purposes.

  • -DLINK_RANDOMIZE_SEED=val

    Seed value for the LINK_RANDOMIZE option. The value is a string. The default is mysql, an arbitrary choice.

  • -DMYSQL_DATADIR=dir_name

    The location of the MySQL data directory.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --datadir option.

  • -DODBC_INCLUDES=dir_name

    The location of the ODBC includes directory, and may be used while configuring Connector/ODBC.

  • -DODBC_LIB_DIR=dir_name

    The location of the ODBC library directory, and may be used while configuring Connector/ODBC.

  • -DSYSCONFDIR=dir_name

    The default my.cnf option file directory.

    This location cannot be set at server startup, but you can start the server with a given option file using the --defaults-file=file_name option, where file_name is the full path name to the file.

  • -DSYSTEMD_PID_DIR=dir_name

    The name of the directory in which to create the PID file when MySQL is managed by systemd. The default is /var/run/mysqld; this might be changed implicitly according to the INSTALL_LAYOUT value.

    This option is ignored unless WITH_SYSTEMD is enabled.

  • -DSYSTEMD_SERVICE_NAME=name

    The name of the MySQL service to use when MySQL is managed by systemd. The default is mysqld; this might be changed implicitly according to the INSTALL_LAYOUT value.

    This option is ignored unless WITH_SYSTEMD is enabled.

  • -DTMPDIR=dir_name

    The default location to use for the tmpdir system variable. If unspecified, the value defaults to P_tmpdir in <stdio.h>.

Storage Engine Options

Storage engines are built as plugins. You can build a plugin as a static module (compiled into the server) or a dynamic module (built as a dynamic library that must be installed into the server using the INSTALL PLUGIN statement or the --plugin-load option before it can be used). Some plugins might not support static or dynamic building.

The InnoDB, MyISAM, MERGE, MEMORY, and CSV engines are mandatory (always compiled into the server) and need not be installed explicitly.

To compile a storage engine statically into the server, use -DWITH_engine_STORAGE_ENGINE=1. Some permissible engine values are ARCHIVE, BLACKHOLE, EXAMPLE, FEDERATED, and NDB or NDBCLUSTER (NDB support). Examples:

-DWITH_ARCHIVE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
-DWITH_BLACKHOLE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
Note

It is not possible to compile without Performance Schema support. If it is desired to compile without particular types of instrumentation, that can be done with the following CMake options:

DISABLE_PSI_COND
DISABLE_PSI_DATA_LOCK
DISABLE_PSI_ERROR
DISABLE_PSI_FILE
DISABLE_PSI_IDLE
DISABLE_PSI_MEMORY
DISABLE_PSI_METADATA
DISABLE_PSI_MUTEX
DISABLE_PSI_PS
DISABLE_PSI_RWLOCK
DISABLE_PSI_SOCKET
DISABLE_PSI_SP
DISABLE_PSI_STAGE
DISABLE_PSI_STATEMENT
DISABLE_PSI_STATEMENT_DIGEST
DISABLE_PSI_TABLE
DISABLE_PSI_THREAD
DISABLE_PSI_TRANSACTION

For example, to compile without mutex instrumentation, configure MySQL using the -DDISABLE_PSI_MUTEX=1 option.

To exclude a storage engine from the build, use -DWITH_engine_STORAGE_ENGINE=0. Examples:

-DWITH_ARCHIVE_STORAGE_ENGINE=0
-DWITH_EXAMPLE_STORAGE_ENGINE=0
-DWITH_FEDERATED_STORAGE_ENGINE=0

It is also possible to exclude a storage engine from the build using -DWITHOUT_engine_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 (but -DWITH_engine_STORAGE_ENGINE=0 is preferred). Examples:

-DWITHOUT_ARCHIVE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
-DWITHOUT_EXAMPLE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
-DWITHOUT_FEDERATED_STORAGE_ENGINE=1

If neither -DWITH_engine_STORAGE_ENGINE nor -DWITHOUT_engine_STORAGE_ENGINE are specified for a given storage engine, the engine is built as a shared module, or excluded if it cannot be built as a shared module.

Feature Options

  • -DADD_GDB_INDEX=bool

    This option determines whether to enable generation of a .gdb_index section in binaries, which makes loading them in a debugger faster. The option is disabled by default. lld linker is used, and is disabled by It has no effect if a linker other than lld or GNU gold is used.

    This option was added in MySQL 8.0.18.

  • -DCOMPILATION_COMMENT=string

    A descriptive comment about the compilation environment. As of MySQL 8.0.14, mysqld uses COMPILATION_COMMENT_SERVER. Other programs continue to use COMPILATION_COMMENT.

  • -DCOMPILATION_COMMENT_SERVER=string

    A descriptive comment about the compilation environment for use by mysqld (for example, to set the version_comment system variable). This option was added in MySQL 8.0.14. Prior to 8.0.14, the server uses COMPILATION_COMMENT.

  • -DDEFAULT_CHARSET=charset_name

    The server character set. By default, MySQL uses the utf8mb4 character set.

    charset_name may be one of binary, armscii8, ascii, big5, cp1250, cp1251, cp1256, cp1257, cp850, cp852, cp866, cp932, dec8, eucjpms, euckr, gb2312, gbk, geostd8, greek, hebrew, hp8, keybcs2, koi8r, koi8u, latin1, latin2, latin5, latin7, macce, macroman, sjis, swe7, tis620, ucs2, ujis, utf8, utf8mb4, utf16, utf16le, utf32. The permissible character sets are listed in the cmake/character_sets.cmake file as the value of CHARSETS_AVAILABLE.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --character_set_server option.

  • -DDEFAULT_COLLATION=collation_name

    The server collation. By default, MySQL uses utf8mb4_0900_ai_ci. Use the SHOW COLLATION statement to determine which collations are available for each character set.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --collation_server option.

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_COND=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema condition instrumentation. The default is OFF (include).

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_FILE=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema file instrumentation. The default is OFF (include).

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_IDLE=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema idle instrumentation. The default is OFF (include).

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_MEMORY=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema memory instrumentation. The default is OFF (include).

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_METADATA=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema metadata instrumentation. The default is OFF (include).

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_MUTEX=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema mutex instrumentation. The default is OFF (include).

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_RWLOCK=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema rwlock instrumentation. The default is OFF (include).

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_SOCKET=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema socket instrumentation. The default is OFF (include).

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_SP=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema stored program instrumentation. The default is OFF (include).

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_STAGE=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema stage instrumentation. The default is OFF (include).

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_STATEMENT=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema statement instrumentation. The default is OFF (include).

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_STATEMENT_DIGEST=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema statement_digest instrumentation. The default is OFF (include).

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_TABLE=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema table instrumentation. The default is OFF (include).

  • -DDISABLE_SHARED=bool

    Whether to disable building build shared libraries and compile position-dependent code. The default is OFF (compile position-independent code).

    This option is unused and was removed in MySQL 8.0.18.

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_PS=bool

    Exclude the performance schema prepared statements instances instrumentation. The default is OFF (include).

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_THREAD=bool

    Exclude the performance schema thread instrumentation. The default is OFF (include).

    Only disable threads when building without any instrumentation, because other instrumentations have a dependency on threads.

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_TRANSACTION=bool

    Exclude the performance schema transaction instrumentation. The default is OFF (include).

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_DATA_LOCK=bool

    Exclude the performance schema data lock instrumentation. The default is OFF (include).

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_ERROR=bool

    Exclude the performance schema server error instrumentation. The default is OFF (include).

  • -DDOWNLOAD_BOOST=bool

    Whether to download the Boost library. The default is OFF.

    See the WITH_BOOST option for additional discussion about using Boost.

  • -DDOWNLOAD_BOOST_TIMEOUT=seconds

    The timeout in seconds for downloading the Boost library. The default is 600 seconds.

    See the WITH_BOOST option for additional discussion about using Boost.

  • -DENABLE_DEBUG_SYNC=bool

    As of MySQL 8.0.1, ENABLE_DEBUG_SYNC is removed and enabling WITH_DEBUG enables Debug Sync.

  • -DENABLE_DOWNLOADS=bool

    Whether to download optional files. For example, with this option enabled, CMake downloads the Google Test distribution that is used by the test suite to run unit tests, or Ant and JUnit required for building GCS Java wrapper.

  • -DENABLE_DTRACE=bool

    Whether to include support for DTrace probes.

    This option was removed in MySQL 8.0.1.

  • -DENABLE_EXPERIMENTAL_SYSVARS=bool

    Whether to enable experimental InnoDB system variables. Experimental system variables are intended for those engaged in MySQL development, should only be used in a development or test environment, and may be removed without notice in a future MySQL release. For information about experimental system variables, refer to /storage/innobase/handler/ha_innodb.cc in the MySQL source tree. Experimental system variables can be identified by searching for PLUGIN_VAR_EXPERIMENTAL.

  • -DENABLE_GCOV=bool

    Whether to include gcov support (Linux only).

  • -DENABLE_GPROF=bool

    Whether to enable gprof (optimized Linux builds only).

  • -DENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE=bool

    This option controls the compiled-in default LOCAL capability for the MySQL client library. Clients that make no explicit arrangements therefore have LOCAL capability disabled or enabled according to the ENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE setting specified at MySQL build time.

    By default, the client library in MySQL binary distributions is compiled with ENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE disabled. If you compile MySQL from source, configure it with ENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE disabled or enabled based on whether clients that make no explicit arrangements should have LOCAL capability disabled or enabled, respectively.

    ENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE controls the default for client-side LOCAL capability. For the server, the local_infile system variable controls server-side LOCAL capability. To explicitly cause the server to refuse or permit LOAD DATA LOCAL statements (regardless of how client programs and libraries are configured at build time or runtime), start mysqld with local_infile disabled or enabled, respectively. local_infile can also be set at runtime. See Section 6.1.6, “Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL”.

  • -DENABLED_PROFILING=bool

    Whether to enable query profiling code (for the SHOW PROFILE and SHOW PROFILES statements).

  • -DFORCE_UNSUPPORTED_COMPILER=bool

    By default, CMake checks for minimum versions of supported compilers: Visual Studio 2015 (Windows); GCC 4.8 or Clang 3.4 (Linux); Developer Studio 12.5 (Solaris server); Developer Studio 12.4 or GCC 4.8 (Solaris client library); Clang 3.6 (macOS), Clang 3.4 (FreeBSD). To disable this check, use -DFORCE_UNSUPPORTED_COMPILER=ON.

  • -DIGNORE_AIO_CHECK=bool

    If the -DBUILD_CONFIG=mysql_release option is given on Linux, the libaio library must be linked in by default. If you do not have libaio or do not want to install it, you can suppress the check for it by specifying -DIGNORE_AIO_CHECK=1.

  • -DMAX_INDEXES=num

    The maximum number of indexes per table. The default is 64. The maximum is 255. Values smaller than 64 are ignored and the default of 64 is used.

  • -DMYSQL_MAINTAINER_MODE=bool

    Whether to enable a MySQL maintainer-specific development environment. If enabled, this option causes compiler warnings to become errors.

  • -DMUTEX_TYPE=type

    The mutex type used by InnoDB. Options include:

    • event: Use event mutexes. This is the default value and the original InnoDB mutex implementation.

    • sys: Use POSIX mutexes on UNIX systems. Use CRITICAL_SECTION onjects on Windows, if available.

    • futex: Use Linux futexes instead of condition variables to schedule waiting threads.

  • -DMYSQLX_TCP_PORT=port_num

    The port number on which X Plugin listens for TCP/IP connections. The default is 33060.

    This value can be set at server startup with the mysqlx_port system variable.

  • -DMYSQLX_UNIX_ADDR=file_name

    The Unix socket file path on which the server listens for X Plugin socket connections. This must be an absolute path name. The default is /tmp/mysqlx.sock.

    This value can be set at server startup with the mysqlx_port system variable.

  • -DMYSQL_PROJECT_NAME=name

    For Windows or macOS, the project name to incorporate into the project file name.

  • -DMYSQL_TCP_PORT=port_num

    The port number on which the server listens for TCP/IP connections. The default is 3306.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --port option.

  • -DMYSQL_UNIX_ADDR=file_name

    The Unix socket file path on which the server listens for socket connections. This must be an absolute path name. The default is /tmp/mysql.sock.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --socket option.

  • -DOPTIMIZER_TRACE=bool

    Whether to support optimizer tracing. See MySQL Internals: Tracing the Optimizer.

  • -DREPRODUCIBLE_BUILD=bool

    For builds on Linux systems, this option controls whether to take extra care to create a build result independent of build location and time.

    This option was added in MySQL 8.0.11. As of MySQL 8.0.12, it defaults to ON for RelWithDebInfo builds.

  • -DUSE_LD_GOLD=bool

    CMake causes the build process to link with the GNU gold linker if it is available and not explicitly disabled. To disable use of this linker, specify the -DUSE_LD_GOLD=OFF option.

  • -DUSE_LD_LLD=bool

    CMake causes the build process to link with the llvm lld linker for Clang if it is available and not explicitly disabled. To disable use of this linker, specify the -DUSE_LD_LLD=OFF option.

    This option was added in MySQL 8.0.16.

  • -DWIN_DEBUG_NO_INLINE=bool

    Whether to disable function inlining on Windows. The default is off (inlining enabled).

  • -DWITH_ANT=path_name

    Set the path to Ant, required when building GCS Java wrapper. Works in a similar way to the existing WITH_BOOST CMake option. Set WITH_ANT to the path of a directory where the Ant tarball, or an already unpacked archive, is saved. When WITH_ANT is not set, or is set with the special value system, the build assumes a binary ant exists in $PATH.

  • -DWITH_ASAN=bool

    Whether to enable the AddressSanitizer, for compilers that support it. The default is off.

  • -DWITH_ASAN_SCOPE=bool

    Whether to enable the AddressSanitizer -fsanitize-address-use-after-scope Clang flag for use-after-scope detection. The default is off. To use this option, -DWITH_ASAN must also be enabled.

  • -DWITH_AUTHENTICATION_LDAP=bool

    Whether to report an error if the LDAP authentication plugins cannot be built:

    • If this option is disabled (the default), the LDAP plugins are built if the required header files and libraries are found. If they are not, CMake displays a note about it.

    • If this option is enabled, a failure to find the required header file andlibraries causes CMake to produce an error, preventing the server from being built.

  • -DWITH_AUTHENTICATION_PAM=bool

    Whether to build the PAM authentication plugin, for source trees that include this plugin. (See Section 6.4.1.5, “PAM Pluggable Authentication”.) If this option is specified and the plugin cannot be compiled, the build fails.

  • -DWITH_AWS_SDK=path_name

    The location of the Amazon Web Services software development kit.

  • -DWITH_BOOST=path_name

    The Boost library is required to build MySQL. These CMake options enable control over the library source location, and whether to download it automatically:

    • -DWITH_BOOST=path_name specifies the Boost library directory location. It is also possible to specify the Boost location by setting the BOOST_ROOT or WITH_BOOST environment variable.

      -DWITH_BOOST=system is also permitted and indicates that the correct version of Boost is installed on the compilation host in the standard location. In this case, the installed version of Boost is used rather than any version included with a MySQL source distribution.

    • -DDOWNLOAD_BOOST=bool specifies whether to download the Boost source if it is not present in the specified location. The default is OFF.

    • -DDOWNLOAD_BOOST_TIMEOUT=seconds the timeout in seconds for downloading the Boost library. The default is 600 seconds.

    For example, if you normally build MySQL placing the object output in the bld subdirectory of your MySQL source tree, you can build with Boost like this:

    mkdir bld
    cd bld
    cmake .. -DDOWNLOAD_BOOST=ON -DWITH_BOOST=$HOME/my_boost
    

    This causes Boost to be downloaded into the my_boost directory under your home directory. If the required Boost version is already there, no download is done. If the required Boost version changes, the newer version is downloaded.

    If Boost is already installed locally and your compiler finds the Boost header files on its own, it may not be necessary to specify the preceding CMake options. However, if the version of Boost required by MySQL changes and the locally installed version has not been upgraded, you may have build problems. Using the CMake options should give you a successful build.

    With the above settings that allow Boost download into a specified location, when the required Boost version changes, you need to remove the bld folder, recreate it, and perform the cmake step again. Otherwise, the new Boost version might not get downloaded, and compilation might fail.

  • -DWITH_CLIENT_PROTOCOL_TRACING=bool

    Whether to build the client-side protocol tracing framework into the client library. By default, this option is enabled.

    For information about writing protocol trace client plugins, see Section 29.2.4.11, “Writing Protocol Trace Plugins”.

    See also the WITH_TEST_TRACE_PLUGIN option.

  • -DWITH_CURL=curl_type

    The location of the curl library. curl_type can be system (use the system curl library) or a path name to the curl library.

  • -DWITH_DEBUG=bool

    Whether to include debugging support.

    Configuring MySQL with debugging support enables you to use the --debug="d,parser_debug" option when you start the server. This causes the Bison parser that is used to process SQL statements to dump a parser trace to the server's standard error output. Typically, this output is written to the error log.

    Sync debug checking for the InnoDB storage engine is defined under UNIV_DEBUG and is available when debugging support is compiled in using the WITH_DEBUG option. When debugging support is compiled in, the innodb_sync_debug configuration option can be used to enable or disable InnoDB sync debug checking.

    Enabling WITH_DEBUG also enables Debug Sync. This facility is used for testing and debugging. When compiled in, Debug Sync is disabled by default at runtime. To enable it, start mysqld with the --debug-sync-timeout=N option, where N is a timeout value greater than 0. (The default value is 0, which disables Debug Sync.) N becomes the default timeout for individual synchronization points.

    Sync debug checking for the InnoDB storage engine is available when debugging support is compiled in using the WITH_DEBUG option.

    For a description of the Debug Sync facility and how to use synchronization points, see MySQL Internals: Test Synchronization.

  • -DWITH_DEFAULT_FEATURE_SET=bool

    Whether to use the flags from cmake/build_configurations/feature_set.cmake.

  • -DWITH_EDITLINE=value

    Which libedit/editline library to use. The permitted values are bundled (the default) and system.

  • -DWITH_ICU={icu_type|path_name}

    MySQL uses International Components for Unicode (ICU) to support regular expression operations. The WITH_ICU option indicates the type of ICU support to include or the path name to the ICU installation to use.

    • icu_type can be one of the following values:

      • bundled: Use the ICU library bundled with the distribution. This is the default, and is the only supported option for Windows.

      • system: Use the system ICU library.

    • path_name is the path name to the ICU installation to use. This can be preferable to using the icu_type value of system because it can prevent CMake from detecting and using an older or incorrect ICU version installed on the system. (Another permitted way to do the same thing is to set WITH_ICU to system and set the CMAKE_PREFIX_PATH option to path_name.)

  • -DWITH_INNODB_EXTRA_DEBUG=bool

    Whether to include extra InnoDB debugging support.

    Enabling WITH_INNODB_EXTRA_DEBUG turns on extra InnoDB debug checks. This option can only be enabled when WITH_DEBUG is enabled.

  • -DWITH_GMOCK=path_name

    The path to the googlemock distribution, for use with Google Test-based unit tests. The option value is the path to the distribution Zip file. Alternatively, set the WITH_GMOCK environment variable to the path name. It is also possible to use -DENABLE_DOWNLOADS=1 and CMake will download the distribution from GitHub.

    If you build MySQL without the Google Test-based unit tests (by configuring wihout WITH_GMOCK), CMake displays a message indicating how to download it.

  • -DWITH_INNODB_MEMCACHED=bool

    Whether to generate memcached shared libraries (libmemcached.so and innodb_engine.so).

  • -DWITH_JEMALLOC=bool

    Whether to link with -ljemalloc. If enabled, built-in malloc(), calloc(), realloc(), and free() routines are disabled. The default is OFF.

    This option was added in MySQL 8.0.16.

  • -DWITH_KEYRING_TEST=bool

    Whether to build the test program that accompanies the keyring_file plugin. The default is OFF. Test file source code is located in the plugin/keyring/keyring-test directory.

  • -DWITH_LIBEVENT=string

    Which libevent library to use. Permitted values are bundled (default), system, and yes. If you specify system or yes, the system libevent library is used if present. If the system library is not found, the bundled libevent library is used. The libevent library is required by InnoDB memcached.

  • -DWITH_LIBWRAP=bool

    Whether to include libwrap (TCP wrappers) support.

  • -DWITH_LOCK_ORDER=bool

    Whether to enable LOCK_ORDER tooling. By default, this option is disabled and server builds contain no tooling. If tooling is enabled, the LOCK_ORDER tool is available and can be used as described in Section 29.5.3, “The LOCK_ORDER Tool”.

    Note

    With the WITH_LOCK_ORDER option enabled, MySQL builds require the flex program.

    This option was added in MySQL 8.0.17.

  • -DWITH_LSAN=bool

    Whether to run LeakSanitizer, without AddressSanitizer. The default is OFF.

    This option was added in MySQL 8.0.16.

  • -DWITH_LTO=bool

    Whether to enable the link-time optimizer, if the compiler supports it. The default is OFF.

    This option was added in MySQL 8.0.13.

  • -DWITH_LZ4=lz4_type

    The WITH_LZ4 indicates the source of zlib support:

    • bundled: Use the lz4 library bundled with the distribution. This is the default.

    • system: Use the system lz4 library. If WITH_LZ4 is set to this value, the lz4_decompress utility is not built. In this case, the system lz4 command can be used instead.

  • -DWITH_MSAN=bool

    Whether to enable MemorySanitizer, for compilers that support it. The default is off.

    For this option to have an effect if enabled, all libraries linked to MySQL must also have been compiled with the option enabled.

  • -DWITH_MECAB={disabled|system|path_name}

    Use this option to compile the MeCab parser. If you have installed MeCab to its default installation directory, set -DWITH_MECAB=system. The system option applies to MeCab installations performed from source or from binaries using a native package management utility. If you installed MeCab to a custom installation directory, specify the path to the MeCab installation. For example, -DWITH_MECAB=/opt/mecab. If the system option does not work, specifying the MeCab installation path should work in all cases.

    For related information, see Section 12.9.9, “MeCab Full-Text Parser Plugin”.

  • -DWITH_MSCRT_DEBUG=bool

    Whether to enable Visual Studio CRT memory leak tracing. The default is OFF.

  • -DWITH_MYSQLX=bool

    Whether to build with support for X Plugin. Default ON. See Chapter 20, Using MySQL as a Document Store.

  • -DWITH_NUMA=bool

    Explicitly set the NUMA memory allocation policy. CMake sets the default WITH_NUMA value based on whether the current platform has NUMA support. For platforms without NUMA support, CMake behaves as follows:

    • With no NUMA option (the normal case), CMake continues normally, producing only this warning: NUMA library missing or required version not available

    • With -DWITH_NUMA=ON, CMake aborts with this error: NUMA library missing or required version not available

  • -DWITH_PROTOBUF=protobuf_type

    Which Protocol Buffers package to use. protobuf_type can be one of the following values:

    • bundled: Use the package bundled with the distribution. This is the default.

    • system: Use the package installed on the system.

    Other values are ignored, with a fallback to bundled.

  • -DWITH_RAPID=bool

    Whether to build the rapid development cycle plugins. When enabled, a rapid directory is created in the build tree containing these plugins. When disabled, no rapid directory is created in the build tree. The default is ON, unless the rapid directory is removed from the source tree, in which case the default becomes OFF.

  • -DWITH_RAPIDJSON=rapidjson_type

    The type of RapidJSON library support to include. rapidjson_type can be one of the following values:

    • bundled: Use the RapidJSON library bundled with the distribution. This is the default.

    • system: Use the system RapidJSON library. Version 1.1.0 or higher is required.

    This option was added in MySQL 8.0.13.

  • -DWITH_LZMA=lzma_type

    The type of LZMA library support to include. lzma_type can be one of the following values:

    • bundled: Use the LZMA library bundled with the distribution. This is the default.

    • system: Use the system LZMA library.

    This option was removed in MySQL 8.0.16.

  • -DWITH_RE2=re2_type

    The type of RE2 library support to include. re2_type can be one of the following values:

    • bundled: Use the RE2 library bundled with the distribution. This is the default.

    • system: Use the system RE2 library.

    As of MySQL 8.0.18, MySQL no longer uses the RE2 library and this option was removed.

  • -DWITH_ROUTER=bool

    Whether to build MySQL Router. The default is ON.

    This option was added in MySQL 8.0.16.

  • -DWITH_SSL={ssl_type|path_name}

    For support of encrypted connections, entropy for random number generation, and other encryption-related operations, MySQL must be built using an SSL library. This option specifies which SSL library to use.

    • ssl_type can be one of the following values:

      • system: Use the system OpenSSL library. This is the default.

        On macOS and Windows, using system configures MySQL to build as if CMake was invoked with path_name points to a manually installed OpenSSL library. This is because they do not have system SSL libraries. On macOS, brew install openssl installs to /usr/local/opt/openssl and system will find it. On Windows, it checks %ProgramFiles%/OpenSSL, %ProgramFiles%/OpenSSL-Win32, %ProgramFiles%/OpenSSL-Win64, C:/OpenSSL, C:/OpenSSL-Win32, and C:/OpenSSL-Win64.

      • yes: This is a synonym for system.

    • path_name is the path name to the OpenSSL installation to use. This can be preferable to using the ssl_type value of system because it can prevent CMake from detecting and using an older or incorrect OpenSSL version installed on the system. (Another permitted way to do the same thing is to set WITH_SSL to system and set the CMAKE_PREFIX_PATH option to path_name.)

    For additional information about configuring the SSL library, see Section 2.9.6, “Configuring SSL Library Support”.

  • -DWITH_SYSTEMD=bool

    Whether to enable installation of systemd support files. By default, this option is disabled. When enabled, systemd support files are installed, and scripts such as mysqld_safe and the System V initialization script are not installed. On platforms where systemd is not available, enabling WITH_SYSTEMD results in an error from CMake.

    For more information about using systemd, see Section 2.5.9, “Managing MySQL Server with systemd”. That section also includes information about specifying options previously specified in [mysqld_safe] option groups. Because mysqld_safe is not installed when systemd is used, such options must be specified another way.

  • -DWITH_SYSTEM_LIBS=bool

    This option serves as an umbrella option to set the system value of any of the following CMake options that are not set explicitly: WITH_CURL, WITH_EDITLINE, WITH_ICU, WITH_LIBEVENT, WITH_LZ4, WITH_LZMA, WITH_PROTOBUF, WITH_RE2, WITH_SSL, WITH_ZLIB, WITH_ZSTD.

  • -DWITH_TEST_TRACE_PLUGIN=bool

    Whether to build the test protocol trace client plugin (see Section 29.2.4.11.1, “Using the Test Protocol Trace Plugin”). By default, this option is disabled. Enabling this option has no effect unless the WITH_CLIENT_PROTOCOL_TRACING option is enabled. If MySQL is configured with both options enabled, the libmysqlclient client library is built with the test protocol trace plugin built in, and all the standard MySQL clients load the plugin. However, even when the test plugin is enabled, it has no effect by default. Control over the plugin is afforded using environment variables; see Section 29.2.4.11.1, “Using the Test Protocol Trace Plugin”.

    Note

    Do not enable the WITH_TEST_TRACE_PLUGIN option if you want to use your own protocol trace plugins because only one such plugin can be loaded at a time and an error occurs for attempts to load a second one. If you have already built MySQL with the test protocol trace plugin enabled to see how it works, you must rebuild MySQL without it before you can use your own plugins.

    For information about writing trace plugins, see Section 29.2.4.11, “Writing Protocol Trace Plugins”.

  • -DWITH_TSAN=bool

    Whether to enable the ThreadSanitizer, for compilers that support it. The default is off.

  • -DWITH_UBSAN=bool

    Whether to enable the Undefined Behavior Sanitizer, for compilers that support it. The default is off.

  • -DWITH_UNIT_TESTS={ON|OFF}

    If enabled, compile MySQL with unit tests. The default is ON unless the server is not being compiled.

  • -DWITH_UNIXODBC=1

    Enables unixODBC support, for Connector/ODBC.

  • -DWITH_VALGRIND=bool

    Whether to compile in the Valgrind header files, which exposes the Valgrind API to MySQL code. The default is OFF.

    To generate a Valgrind-aware debug build, -DWITH_VALGRIND=1 normally is combined with -DWITH_DEBUG=1. See Building Debug Configurations.

  • -DWITH_ZLIB=zlib_type

    Some features require that the server be built with compression library support, such as the COMPRESS() and UNCOMPRESS() functions, and compression of the client/server protocol. The WITH_ZLIB indicates the source of zlib support:

    • bundled: Use the zlib library bundled with the distribution. This is the default.

    • system: Use the system zlib library. If WITH_ZLIB is set to this value, the zlib_decompress utility is not built. In this case, the system openssl zlib command can be used instead.

  • -DWITH_ZSTD=zstd_type

    Connection compression using the zstd algorithm (see Section 4.2.6, “Connection Compression Control”) requires that the server be built with zstd library support. The WITH_ZSTD indicates the source of zstd support:

    • bundled: Use the zstd library bundled with the distribution. This is the default.

    • system: Use the system zstd library.

    This option was added in MySQL 8.0.18.

Compiler Flags

  • -DCMAKE_C_FLAGS="flags"

    Flags for the C Compiler.

  • -DCMAKE_CXX_FLAGS="flags"

    Flags for the C++ Compiler.

  • -DWITH_DEFAULT_COMPILER_OPTIONS=bool

    Whether to use the flags from cmake/build_configurations/compiler_options.cmake.

    Note

    All optimization flags were carefully chosen and tested by the MySQL build team. Overriding them can lead to unexpected results and is done at your own risk.

To specify your own C and C++ compiler flags, for flags that do not affect optimization, use the CMAKE_C_FLAGS and CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS CMake options.

When providing your own compiler flags, you might want to specify CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE as well.

For example, to create a 32-bit release build on a 64-bit Linux machine, do this:

mkdir bld
cd bld
cmake .. -DCMAKE_C_FLAGS=-m32 \
  -DCMAKE_CXX_FLAGS=-m32 \
  -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=RelWithDebInfo

If you set flags that affect optimization (-Onumber), you must set the CMAKE_C_FLAGS_build_type and/or CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS_build_type options, where build_type corresponds to the CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE value. To specify a different optimization for the default build type (RelWithDebInfo) set the CMAKE_C_FLAGS_RELWITHDEBINFO and CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS_RELWITHDEBINFO options. For example, to compile on Linux with -O3 and with debug symbols, do this:

cmake .. -DCMAKE_C_FLAGS_RELWITHDEBINFO="-O3 -g" \
  -DCMAKE_CXX_FLAGS_RELWITHDEBINFO="-O3 -g"

CMake Options for Compiling NDB Cluster

The following options are for use when building MySQL 8.0 sources with NDB Cluster support.

  • -DMEMCACHED_HOME=dir_name

    Perform the build using the memcached (version 1.6 or later) installed in the system directory indicated by dir_name. Files from this installation that are used in the build include the memcached binary, header files, and libraries, as well as the memcached_utilities library and the header file engine_testapp.h.

    You must leave this option unset when building ndbmemcache using the bundled memcached sources (WITH_BUNDLED_MEMCACHED option); in other words, the bundled sources are used by default).

    While additional CMake options—such as for SASL authorization and for providing dtrace support—are available for use when compiling memcached from external sources, these options are currently not enabled for the memcached sources bundled with NDB Cluster.

  • -DWITH_BUNDLED_LIBEVENT={ON|OFF}

    Use the libevent included in the NDB Cluster sources when building NDB Cluster with ndbmemcached support. Enabled by default. OFF causes the system's libevent to be used instead.

  • -DWITH_BUNDLED_MEMCACHED={ON|OFF}

    Build the memcached sources included in the NDB Cluster source tree, then use the resulting memcached server when building the ndbmemcache engine. In this case, make install places the memcached binary in the installation bin directory, and the ndbmemcache engine shared library file ndb_engine.so in the installation lib directory.

    This option is ON by default.

  • -DWITH_CLASSPATH=path

    Sets the classpath for building NDB Cluster Connector for Java. The default is empty. This option is ignored if -DWITH_NDB_JAVA=OFF is used.

  • -DWITH_ERROR_INSERT={ON|OFF}

    Enables error injection in the NDB kernel. For testing only; not intended for use in building production binaries. The default is OFF.

  • -DWITH_NDBCLUSTER_STORAGE_ENGINE={ON|OFF}

    This is an alias for WITH_NDBCLUSTER.

  • -DWITH_NDBCLUSTER={ON|OFF}

    Build and link in support for the NDB (NDBCLUSTER) storage engine in mysqld. The default is ON.

  • -DWITH_NDBMTD={ON|OFF}

    Build the multithreaded data node executable ndbmtd. The default is ON.

  • -DWITH_NDB_BINLOG={ON|OFF}

    Enable binary logging by default in the mysqld built using this option. ON by default.

  • -DWITH_NDB_DEBUG={ON|OFF}

    Enable building the debug versions of the NDB Cluster binaries. OFF by default.

  • -DWITH_NDB_JAVA={ON|OFF}

    Enable building NDB Cluster with Java support, including ClusterJ.

    This option is ON by default. If you do not wish to compile NDB Cluster with Java support, you must disable it explicitly by specifying -DWITH_NDB_JAVA=OFF when running CMake. Otherwise, if Java cannot be found, configuration of the build fails.

  • -DWITH_NDB_PORT=port

    Causes the NDB Cluster management server (ndb_mgmd) that is built to use this port by default. If this option is unset, the resulting management server tries to use port 1186 by default.

  • -DWITH_NDB_TEST={ON|OFF}

    If enabled, include a set of NDB API test programs. The default is OFF.

  • -DWITH_PLUGIN_NDBCLUSTER={ON|OFF}

    Alias for WITH_NDBCLUSTER.

2.9.8 Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL

The solution to many problems involves reconfiguring. If you do reconfigure, take note of the following:

  • If CMake is run after it has previously been run, it may use information that was gathered during its previous invocation. This information is stored in CMakeCache.txt. When CMake starts, it looks for that file and reads its contents if it exists, on the assumption that the information is still correct. That assumption is invalid when you reconfigure.

  • Each time you run CMake, you must run make again to recompile. However, you may want to remove old object files from previous builds first because they were compiled using different configuration options.

To prevent old object files or configuration information from being used, run the following commands before re-running CMake:

On Unix:

shell> make clean
shell> rm CMakeCache.txt

On Windows:

shell> devenv MySQL.sln /clean
shell> del CMakeCache.txt

If you build outside of the source tree, remove and recreate your build directory before re-running CMake. For instructions on building outside of the source tree, see How to Build MySQL Server with CMake.

On some systems, warnings may occur due to differences in system include files. The following list describes other problems that have been found to occur most often when compiling MySQL:

  • To define which C and C++ compilers to use, you can define the CC and CXX environment variables. For example:

    shell> CC=gcc
    shell> CXX=g++
    shell> export CC CXX
    

    To specify your own C and C++ compiler flags, use the CMAKE_C_FLAGS and CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS CMake options. See Compiler Flags.

    To see what flags you might need to specify, invoke mysql_config with the --cflags and --cxxflags options.

  • To see what commands are executed during the compile stage, after using CMake to configure MySQL, run make VERBOSE=1 rather than just make.

  • If compilation fails, check whether the MYSQL_MAINTAINER_MODE option is enabled. This mode causes compiler warnings to become errors, so disabling it may enable compilation to proceed.

  • If your compile fails with errors such as any of the following, you must upgrade your version of make to GNU make:

    make: Fatal error in reader: Makefile, line 18:
    Badly formed macro assignment
    

    Or:

    make: file `Makefile' line 18: Must be a separator (:
    

    Or:

    pthread.h: No such file or directory
    

    Solaris and FreeBSD are known to have troublesome make programs.

    GNU make 3.75 is known to work.

  • The sql_yacc.cc file is generated from sql_yacc.yy. Normally, the build process does not need to create sql_yacc.cc because MySQL comes with a pregenerated copy. However, if you do need to re-create it, you might encounter this error:

    "sql_yacc.yy", line xxx fatal: default action causes potential...
    

    This is a sign that your version of yacc is deficient. You probably need to install a recent version of bison (the GNU version of yacc) and use that instead.

    Versions of bison older than 1.75 may report this error:

    sql_yacc.yy:#####: fatal error: maximum table size (32767) exceeded
    

    The maximum table size is not actually exceeded; the error is caused by bugs in older versions of bison.

For information about acquiring or updating tools, see the system requirements in Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source”.

2.9.9 MySQL Configuration and Third-Party Tools

Third-party tools that need to determine the MySQL version from the MySQL source can read the VERSION file in the top-level source directory. The file lists the pieces of the version separately. For example, if the version is MySQL 8.0.4-rc, the file looks like this:

MYSQL_VERSION_MAJOR=8
MYSQL_VERSION_MINOR=0
MYSQL_VERSION_PATCH=4
MYSQL_VERSION_EXTRA=-rc

If the source is not for a General Availablility (GA) release, the MYSQL_VERSION_EXTRA value will be nonempty. For the example, the value corresponds to Release Candidate.

To construct a five-digit number from the version components, use this formula:

MYSQL_VERSION_MAJOR*10000 + MYSQL_VERSION_MINOR*100 + MYSQL_VERSION_PATCH

2.9.10 Generating MySQL Doxygen Documentation Content

The MySQL source code contains internal documentation written using Doxygen. The generated Doxygen content is available at https://dev.mysql.com/doc/index-other.html. It is also possible to generate this content locally from a MySQL source distribution using the following procedure:

  1. Install doxygen 1.8.11 or higher. Distributions are available here:

    http://www.stack.nl/~dimitri/doxygen/download.html
    

    After installing doxygen, verify the version number:

    shell> doxygen --version
    1.8.11
    
  2. Install PlantUML. Distributions are available here:

    http://plantuml.com/download.html
    

    When you install PlantUML on Windows (tested on Windows 10), you must run it at least once as administrator so it creates the registry keys. Open an administrator console and run this command:

    java -jar path-to-plantuml.jar
    

    The command should open a GUI window and return no errors on the console.

  3. Install the Graphviz dot command. Distributions are available here:

    http://www.graphviz.org/
    

    After installing Graphviz, verify dot availability. For example:

    shell> which dot
    /usr/bin/dot
    shell> dot -V
    dot - graphviz version 2.28.0 (20130928.0220)
    
  4. Set the PLANTUML_JAR_PATH environment to the location where you installed PlantUML. For example:

    export PLANTUML_JAR_PATH=path-to-plantuml.jar
    
  5. To invoke doxygen, change location to the top-level directory of your MySQL source distribution and execute these commands:

    mkdir -p generated/doxygen
    doxygen
    

    Inspect the error log. It is available in the doxyerror.log file in the top-level directory. Assuming that the build executed successfully, view the generated output using a browser. For example:

    firefox generated/doxygen/html/index.html
    

    You can use a different browser, and even bookmark the page.

2.10 Postinstallation Setup and Testing

This section discusses tasks that you should perform after installing MySQL:

  • If necessary, initialize the data directory and create the MySQL grant tables. For some MySQL installation methods, data directory initialization may be done for you automatically:

    • Windows installation operations performed by MySQL Installer.

    • Installation on Linux using a server RPM or Debian distribution from Oracle.

    • Installation using the native packaging system on many platforms, including Debian Linux, Ubuntu Linux, Gentoo Linux, and others.

    • Installation on macOS using a DMG distribution.

    For other platforms and installation types, you must initialize the data directory manually. These include installation from generic binary and source distributions on Unix and Unix-like system, and installation from a ZIP Archive package on Windows. For instructions, see Section 2.10.1, “Initializing the Data Directory”.

  • Start the server and make sure that it can be accessed. For instructions, see Section 2.10.2, “Starting the Server”, and Section 2.10.3, “Testing the Server”.

  • Assign passwords to the initial root account in the grant tables, if that was not already done during data directory initialization. Passwords prevent unauthorized access to the MySQL server. For instructions, see Section 2.10.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Account”.

  • Optionally, arrange for the server to start and stop automatically when your system starts and stops. For instructions, see Section 2.10.5, “Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically”.

  • Optionally, populate time zone tables to enable recognition of named time zones. For instructions, see Section 5.1.13, “MySQL Server Time Zone Support”.

When you are ready to create additional user accounts, you can find information on the MySQL access control system and account management in Section 6.2, “Access Control and Account Management”.

2.10.1 Initializing the Data Directory

After MySQL is installed, the data directory must be initialized, including the tables in the mysql system schema:

  • For some MySQL installation methods, data directory initialization is automatic, as described in Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”.

  • For other installation methods, you must initialize the data directory manually. These include installation from generic binary and source distributions on Unix and Unix-like systems, and installation from a ZIP Archive package on Windows.

This section describes how to initialize the data directory manually for MySQL installation methods for which data directory initialization is not automatic. For some suggested commands that enable testing whether the server is accessible and working properly, see Section 2.10.3, “Testing the Server”.

Note

In MySQL 8.0, the default authentication plugin has changed from mysql_native_password to caching_sha2_password, and the 'root'@'localhost' administrative account uses caching_sha2_password by default. If you prefer that the root account use the previous default authentication plugin (mysql_native_password), see caching_sha2_password and the root Administrative Account.

Data Directory Initialization Overview

In the examples shown here, the server is intended to run under the user ID of the mysql login account. Either create the account if it does not exist (see Create a mysql User and Group), or substitute the name of a different existing login account that you plan to use for running the server.

  1. Change location to the top-level directory of your MySQL installation, which is typically /usr/local/mysql (adjust the path name for your system as necessary):

    cd /usr/local/mysql
    

    Within the directory you will find several files and subdirectories, including the bin subdirectory that contains the server as well as client and utility programs.

  2. The secure_file_priv system variable limits import and export operations to a specific directory. Create a directory whose location can be specified as the value of that variable:

    mkdir mysql-files
    

    Grant directory user and group ownership to the mysql user and mysql group, and set the directory permissions appropriately:

    chown mysql:mysql mysql-files
    chmod 750 mysql-files
    
  3. Use the server to initialize the data directory, including the mysql schema containing the initial MySQL grant tables that determine how users are permitted to connect to the server. For example:

    bin/mysqld --initialize --user=mysql
    

    For important information about the command, especially regarding command options you might use, see Data Directory Initialization Procedure. For details about how the server performs initialization, see Server Actions During Data Directory Initialization.

    Typically, data directory initialization need be done only after you first install MySQL. (For upgrades to an existing installation, perform the upgrade procedure instead; see Section 2.11, “Upgrading MySQL”.) However, the command that initializes the data directory does not overwrite any existing mysql schema tables, so it is safe to run in any circumstances.

  4. If you want to deploy the server with automatic support for secure connections, use the mysql_ssl_rsa_setup utility to create default SSL and RSA files:

    bin/mysql_ssl_rsa_setup
    

    For more information, see Section 4.4.3, “mysql_ssl_rsa_setup — Create SSL/RSA Files”.

  5. In the absence of any option files, the server starts with its default settings. (See Section 5.1.2, “Server Configuration Defaults”.) To explicitly specify options that the MySQL server should use at startup, put them in an option file such as /etc/my.cnf or /etc/mysql/my.cnf. (See Section 4.2.2.2, “Using Option Files”.) For example, you can use an option file to set the secure_file_priv system variable.

  6. To arrange for MySQL to start without manual intervention at system boot time, see Section 2.10.5, “Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically”.

  7. Data directory initialization creates time zone tables in the mysql schema but does not populate them. To do so, use the instructions in Section 5.1.13, “MySQL Server Time Zone Support”.

Data Directory Initialization Procedure

Change location to the top-level directory of your MySQL installation, which is typically /usr/local/mysql (adjust the path name for your system as necessary):

cd /usr/local/mysql

To initialize the data directory, invoke mysqld with the --initialize or --initialize-insecure option, depending on whether you want the server to generate a random initial password for the 'root'@'localhost' account, or to create that account with no password:

  • Use --initialize for secure by default installation (that is, including generation of a random initial root password). In this case, the password is marked as expired and you will need to choose a new one.

  • With --initialize-insecure, no root password is generated. This is insecure; it is assumed that you will assign a password to the account in timely fashion before putting the server into production use.

For instructions on assigning a new 'root'@'localhost' password, see Post-Initialization root Password Assignment.

Note

The server writes any messages (including any initial password) to its standard error output. This may be redirected to the error log, so look there if you do not see the messages on your screen. For information about the error log, including where it is located, see Section 5.4.2, “The Error Log”.

On Windows, use the --console option to direct messages to the console.

On Unix and Unix-like systems, it is important for the database directories and files to be owned by the mysql login account so that the server has read and write access to them when you run it later. To ensure this, start mysqld from the system root account and include the --user option as shown here:

bin/mysqld --initialize --user=mysql
bin/mysqld --initialize-insecure --user=mysql

Alternatively, execute mysqld while logged in as mysql, in which case you can omit the --user option from the command.

On Windows, use one of these commands:

bin\mysqld --initialize --console
bin\mysqld --initialize-insecure --console
Note

Data directory initialization might fail if required system libraries are missing. For example, you might see an error like this:

bin/mysqld: error while loading shared libraries:
libnuma.so.1: cannot open shared object file:
No such file or directory

If this happens, you must install the missing libraries manually or with your system's package manager. Then retry the data directory initialization command.

It might be necessary to specify other options such as --basedir or --datadir if mysqld cannot identify the correct locations for the installation directory or data directory. For example (enter the command on a single line):

bin/mysqld --initialize --user=mysql
  --basedir=/opt/mysql/mysql
  --datadir=/opt/mysql/mysql/data

Alternatively, put the relevant option settings in an option file and pass the name of that file to mysqld. For Unix and Unix-like systems, suppose that the option file name is /opt/mysql/mysql/etc/my.cnf. Put these lines in the file:

[mysqld]
basedir=/opt/mysql/mysql
datadir=/opt/mysql/mysql/data

Then invoke mysqld as follows (enter the command on a single line with the --defaults-file option first):

bin/mysqld --defaults-file=/opt/mysql/mysql/etc/my.cnf
  --initialize --user=mysql

On Windows, suppose that C:\my.ini contains these lines:

[mysqld]
basedir=C:\\Program Files\\MySQL\\MySQL Server 8.0
datadir=D:\\MySQLdata

Then invoke mysqld as follows (enter the command on a single line with the --defaults-file option first):

bin\mysqld --defaults-file=C:\my.ini
   --initialize --console

Server Actions During Data Directory Initialization

Note

The data directory initialization sequence performed by the server does not substitute for the actions performed by mysql_secure_installation and mysql_ssl_rsa_setup. See Section 4.4.2, “mysql_secure_installation — Improve MySQL Installation Security”, and Section 4.4.3, “mysql_ssl_rsa_setup — Create SSL/RSA Files”.

When invoked with the --initialize or --initialize-insecure option, mysqld performs the following actions during the data directory initialization sequence:

  1. The server checks for the existence of the data directory as follows:

    • If no data directory exists, the server creates it.

    • If the data directory exists but is not empty (that is, it contains files or subdirectories), the server exits after producing an error message:

      [ERROR] --initialize specified but the data directory exists. Aborting.
      

      In this case, remove or rename the data directory and try again.

      An existing data directory is permitted to be nonempty if every entry has a name that begins with a period (.).

  2. Within the data directory, the server creates the mysql system schema and its tables, including the data dictionary tables, grant tables, time zone tables, and server-side help tables. See Section 5.3, “The mysql System Schema”.

  3. The server initializes the system tablespace and related data structures needed to manage InnoDB tables.

    Note

    After mysqld sets up the InnoDB system tablespace, certain changes to tablespace characteristics require setting up a whole new instance. Qualifying changes include the file name of the first file in the system tablespace and the number of undo logs. If you do not want to use the default values, make sure that the settings for the innodb_data_file_path and innodb_log_file_size configuration parameters are in place in the MySQL configuration file before running mysqld. Also make sure to specify as necessary other parameters that affect the creation and location of InnoDB files, such as innodb_data_home_dir and innodb_log_group_home_dir.

    If those options are in your configuration file but that file is not in a location that MySQL reads by default, specify the file location using the --defaults-extra-file option when you run mysqld.

  4. The server creates a 'root'@'localhost' superuser account and other reserved accounts (see Section 6.2.9, “Reserved Accounts”). Some reserved accounts are locked and cannot be used by clients, but 'root'@'localhost' is intended for administrative use and you should assign it a password.

    Server actions with respect to a password for the 'root'@'localhost' account depend on how you invoke it:

    • With --initialize but not --initialize-insecure, the server generates a random password, marks it as expired, and writes a message displaying the password:

      [Warning] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost:
      iTag*AfrH5ej
      
    • With --initialize-insecure, (either with or without --initialize because --initialize-insecure implies --initialize), the server does not generate a password or mark it expired, and writes a warning message:

      [Warning] root@localhost is created with an empty password ! Please
      consider switching off the --initialize-insecure option.
      

    For instructions on assigning a new 'root'@'localhost' password, see Post-Initialization root Password Assignment.

  5. The server populates the server-side help tables used for the HELP statement (see Section 13.8.3, “HELP Syntax”). The server does not populate the time zone tables. To do so manually, see Section 5.1.13, “MySQL Server Time Zone Support”.

  6. If the --init-file option was given to name a file of SQL statements, the server executes the statements in the file. This option enables you to perform custom bootstrapping sequences.

    When the server operates in bootstrap mode, some functionality is unavailable that limits the statements permitted in the file. These include statements that relate to account management (such as CREATE USER or GRANT), replication, and global transaction identifiers.

  7. The server exits.

Post-Initialization root Password Assignment

After you initialize the data directory by starting the server with --initialize or --initialize-insecure, start the server normally (that is, without either of those options) and assign the 'root'@'localhost' account a new password:

  1. Start the server. For instructions, see Section 2.10.2, “Starting the Server”.

  2. Connect to the server:

    • If you used --initialize but not --initialize-insecure to initialize the data directory, connect to the server as root:

      mysql -u root -p
      

      Then, at the password prompt, enter the random password that the server generated during the initialization sequence:

      Enter password: (enter the random root password here)
      

      Look in the server error log if you do not know this password.

    • If you used --initialize-insecure to initialize the data directory, connect to the server as root without a password:

      mysql -u root --skip-password
      
  3. After connecting, use an ALTER USER statement to assign a new root password:

    ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'root-password';
    

See also Section 2.10.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Account”.

Note

Attempts to connect to the host 127.0.0.1 normally resolve to the localhost account. However, this fails if the server is run with the --skip-name-resolve option. If you plan to do that, make sure that an account exists that can accept a connection. For example, to be able to connect as root using --host=127.0.0.1 or --host=::1, create these accounts:

CREATE USER 'root'@'127.0.0.1' IDENTIFIED BY 'root-password';
CREATE USER 'root'@'::1' IDENTIFIED BY 'root-password';

It is possible to put those statements in a file to be executed by the --init-file option discussed in Server Actions During Data Directory Initialization.

2.10.2 Starting the Server

This section describes how start the server on Unix and Unix-like systems. (For Windows, see Section 2.3.4.5, “Starting the Server for the First Time”.) For some suggested commands that you can use to test whether the server is accessible and working properly, see Section 2.10.3, “Testing the Server”.

Start the MySQL server like this if your installation includes mysqld_safe:

shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
Note

For Linux systems on which MySQL is installed using RPM packages, server startup and shutdown is managed using systemd rather than mysqld_safe, and mysqld_safe is not installed. See Section 2.5.9, “Managing MySQL Server with systemd”.

Start the server like this if your installation includes systemd support:

shell> systemctl start mysqld

Substitute the appropriate service name if it differs from mysqld (for example, mysql on SLES systems).

It is important that the MySQL server be run using an unprivileged (non-root) login account. To ensure this, run mysqld_safe as root and include the --user option as shown. Otherwise, you should execute the program while logged in as mysql, in which case you can omit the --user option from the command.

For further instructions for running MySQL as an unprivileged user, see Section 6.1.5, “How to Run MySQL as a Normal User”.

If the command fails immediately and prints mysqld ended, look for information in the error log (which by default is the host_name.err file in the data directory).

If the server is unable to access the data directory it starts or read the grant tables in the mysql schema, it writes a message to its error log. Such problems can occur if you neglected to create the grant tables by initializing the data directory before proceeding to this step, or if you ran the command that initializes the data directory without the --user option. Remove the data directory and run the command with the --user option.

If you have other problems starting the server, see Section 2.10.2.1, “Troubleshooting Problems Starting the MySQL Server”. For more information about mysqld_safe, see Section 4.3.2, “mysqld_safe — MySQL Server Startup Script”. For more information about systemd support, see Section 2.5.9, “Managing MySQL Server with systemd”.

2.10.2.1 Troubleshooting Problems Starting the MySQL Server

This section provides troubleshooting suggestions for problems starting the server. For additional suggestions for Windows systems, see Section 2.3.5, “Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation”.

If you have problems starting the server, here are some things to try:

  • Check the error log to see why the server does not start. Log files are located in the data directory (typically C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\data on Windows, /usr/local/mysql/data for a Unix/Linux binary distribution, and /usr/local/var for a Unix/Linux source distribution). Look in the data directory for files with names of the form host_name.err and host_name.log, where host_name is the name of your server host. Then examine the last few lines of these files. Use tail to display them:

    shell> tail host_name.err
    shell> tail host_name.log
    
  • Specify any special options needed by the storage engines you are using. You can create a my.cnf file and specify startup options for the engines that you plan to use. If you are going to use storage engines that support transactional tables (InnoDB, NDB), be sure that you have them configured the way you want before starting the server. If you are using InnoDB tables, see Section 15.8, “InnoDB Configuration” for guidelines and Section 15.13, “InnoDB Startup Options and System Variables” for option syntax.

    Although storage engines use default values for options that you omit, Oracle recommends that you review the available options and specify explicit values for any options whose defaults are not appropriate for your installation.

  • Make sure that the server knows where to find the data directory. The mysqld server uses this directory as its current directory. This is where it expects to find databases and where it expects to write log files. The server also writes the pid (process ID) file in the data directory.

    The default data directory location is hardcoded when the server is compiled. To determine what the default path settings are, invoke mysqld with the --verbose and --help options. If the data directory is located somewhere else on your system, specify that location with the --datadir option to mysqld or mysqld_safe, on the command line or in an option file. Otherwise, the server will not work properly. As an alternative to the --datadir option, you can specify mysqld the location of the base directory under which MySQL is installed with the --basedir, and mysqld looks for the data directory there.

    To check the effect of specifying path options, invoke mysqld with those options followed by the --verbose and --help options. For example, if you change location to the directory where mysqld is installed and then run the following command, it shows the effect of starting the server with a base directory of /usr/local:

    shell> ./mysqld --basedir=/usr/local --verbose --help
    

    You can specify other options such as --datadir as well, but --verbose and --help must be the last options.

    Once you determine the path settings you want, start the server without --verbose and --help.

    If mysqld is currently running, you can find out what path settings it is using by executing this command:

    shell> mysqladmin variables
    

    Or:

    shell> mysqladmin -h host_name variables
    

    host_name is the name of the MySQL server host.

  • Make sure that the server can access the data directory. The ownership and permissions of the data directory and its contents must allow the server to read and modify them.

    If you get Errcode 13 (which means Permission denied) when starting mysqld, this means that the privileges of the data directory or its contents do not permit server access. In this case, you change the permissions for the involved files and directories so that the server has the right to use them. You can also start the server as root, but this raises security issues and should be avoided.

    Change location to the data directory and check the ownership of the data directory and its contents to make sure the server has access. For example, if the data directory is /usr/local/mysql/var, use this command:

    shell> ls -la /usr/local/mysql/var
    

    If the data directory or its files or subdirectories are not owned by the login account that you use for running the server, change their ownership to that account. If the account is named mysql, use these commands:

    shell> chown -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/var
    shell> chgrp -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/var
    

    Even with correct ownership, MySQL might fail to start up if there is other security software running on your system that manages application access to various parts of the file system. In this case, reconfigure that software to enable mysqld to access the directories it uses during normal operation.

  • Verify that the network interfaces the server wants to use are available.

    If either of the following errors occur, it means that some other program (perhaps another mysqld server) is using the TCP/IP port or Unix socket file that mysqld is trying to use:

    Can't start server: Bind on TCP/IP port: Address already in use
    Can't start server: Bind on unix socket...
    

    Use ps to determine whether you have another mysqld server running. If so, shut down the server before starting mysqld again. (If another server is running, and you really want to run multiple servers, you can find information about how to do so in Section 5.8, “Running Multiple MySQL Instances on One Machine”.)

    If no other server is running, execute the command telnet your_host_name tcp_ip_port_number. (The default MySQL port number is 3306.) Then press Enter a couple of times. If you do not get an error message like telnet: Unable to connect to remote host: Connection refused, some other program is using the TCP/IP port that mysqld is trying to use. Track down what program this is and disable it, or tell mysqld to listen to a different port with the --port option. In this case, specify the same non-default port number for client programs when connecting to the server using TCP/IP.

    Another reason the port might be inaccessible is that you have a firewall running that blocks connections to it. If so, modify the firewall settings to permit access to the port.

    If the server starts but you cannot connect to it, make sure that you have an entry in /etc/hosts that looks like this:

    127.0.0.1       localhost
    
  • If you cannot get mysqld to start, try to make a trace file to find the problem by using the --debug option. See Section 29.5.4, “The DBUG Package”.

2.10.3 Testing the Server

After the data directory is initialized and you have started the server, perform some simple tests to make sure that it works satisfactorily. This section assumes that your current location is the MySQL installation directory and that it has a bin subdirectory containing the MySQL programs used here. If that is not true, adjust the command path names accordingly.

Alternatively, add the bin directory to your PATH environment variable setting. That enables your shell (command interpreter) to find MySQL programs properly, so that you can run a program by typing only its name, not its path name. See Section 4.2.7, “Setting Environment Variables”.

Use mysqladmin to verify that the server is running. The following commands provide simple tests to check whether the server is up and responding to connections:

shell> bin/mysqladmin version
shell> bin/mysqladmin variables

If you cannot connect to the server, specify a -u root option to connect as root. If you have assigned a password for the root account already, you'll also need to specify -p on the command line and enter the password when prompted. For example:

shell> bin/mysqladmin -u root -p version
Enter password: (enter root password here)

The output from mysqladmin version varies slightly depending on your platform and version of MySQL, but should be similar to that shown here:

shell> bin/mysqladmin version
mysqladmin  Ver 14.12 Distrib 8.0.19, for pc-linux-gnu on i686
...

Server version          8.0.19
Protocol version        10
Connection              Localhost via UNIX socket
UNIX socket             /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
Uptime:                 14 days 5 hours 5 min 21 sec

Threads: 1  Questions: 366  Slow queries: 0
Opens: 0  Flush tables: 1  Open tables: 19
Queries per second avg: 0.000

To see what else you can do with mysqladmin, invoke it with the --help option.

Verify that you can shut down the server (include a -p option if the root account has a password already):

shell> bin/mysqladmin -u root shutdown

Verify that you can start the server again. Do this by using mysqld_safe or by invoking mysqld directly. For example:

shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &

If mysqld_safe fails, see Section 2.10.2.1, “Troubleshooting Problems Starting the MySQL Server”.

Run some simple tests to verify that you can retrieve information from the server. The output should be similar to that shown here.

Use mysqlshow to see what databases exist:

shell> bin/mysqlshow
+--------------------+
|     Databases      |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| sys                |
+--------------------+

The list of installed databases may vary, but always includes at least mysql and information_schema.

If you specify a database name, mysqlshow displays a list of the tables within the database:

shell> bin/mysqlshow mysql
Database: mysql
+---------------------------+
|          Tables           |
+---------------------------+
| columns_priv              |
| component                 |
| db                        |
| default_roles             |
| engine_cost               |
| func                      |
| general_log               |
| global_grants             |
| gtid_executed             |
| help_category             |
| help_keyword              |
| help_relation             |
| help_topic                |
| innodb_index_stats        |
| innodb_table_stats        |
| ndb_binlog_index          |
| password_history          |
| plugin                    |
| procs_priv                |
| proxies_priv              |
| role_edges                |
| server_cost               |
| servers                   |
| slave_master_info         |
| slave_relay_log_info      |
| slave_worker_info         |
| slow_log                  |
| tables_priv               |
| time_zone                 |
| time_zone_leap_second     |
| time_zone_name            |
| time_zone_transition      |
| time_zone_transition_type |
| user                      |
+---------------------------+

Use the mysql program to select information from a table in the mysql schema:

shell> bin/mysql -e "SELECT User, Host, plugin FROM mysql.user" mysql
+------+-----------+-----------------------+
| User | Host      | plugin                |
+------+-----------+-----------------------+
| root | localhost | caching_sha2_password |
+------+-----------+-----------------------+

At this point, your server is running and you can access it. To tighten security if you have not yet assigned a password to the initial account, follow the instructions in Section 2.10.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Account”.

For more information about mysql, mysqladmin, and mysqlshow, see Section 4.5.1, “mysql — The MySQL Command-Line Client”, Section 4.5.2, “mysqladmin — Client for Administering a MySQL Server”, and Section 4.5.7, “mysqlshow — Display Database, Table, and Column Information”.

2.10.4 Securing the Initial MySQL Account

The MySQL installation process involves initializing the data directory, including the grant tables in the mysql system schema that define MySQL accounts. For details, see Section 2.10.1, “Initializing the Data Directory”.

This section describes how to assign a password to the initial root account created during the MySQL installation procedure, if you have not already done so.

Note

Alternative means for performing the process described in this section:

A password may already be assigned to the initial account under these circumstances:

  • On Windows, installations performed using MySQL Installer give you the option of assigning a password.

  • Installation using the macOS installer generates an initial random password, which the installer displays to the user in a dialog box.

  • Installation using RPM packages generates an initial random password, which is written to the server error log.

  • Installations using Debian packages give you the option of assigning a password.

  • For data directory initialization performed manually using mysqld --initialize, mysqld generates an initial random password, marks it expired, and writes it to the server error log. See Section 2.10.1, “Initializing the Data Directory”.

The mysql.user grant table defines the initial MySQL user account and its access privileges. Installation of MySQL creates only a 'root'@'localhost' superuser account that has all privileges and can do anything. If the root account has an empty password, your MySQL installation is unprotected: Anyone can connect to the MySQL server as root without a password and be granted all privileges.

The 'root'@'localhost' account also has a row in the mysql.proxies_priv table that enables granting the PROXY privilege for ''@'', that is, for all users and all hosts. This enables root to set up proxy users, as well as to delegate to other accounts the authority to set up proxy users. See Section 6.2.18, “Proxy Users”.

To assign a password for the initial MySQL root account, use the following procedure. Replace root-password in the examples with the password that you want to use.

Start the server if it is not running. For instructions, see Section 2.10.2, “Starting the Server”.

The initial root account may or may not have a password. Choose whichever of the following procedures applies:

  • If the root account exists with an initial random password that has been expired, connect to the server as root using that password, then choose a new password. This is the case if the data directory was initialized using mysqld --initialize, either manually or using an installer that does not give you the option of specifying a password during the install operation. Because the password exists, you must use it to connect to the server. But because the password is expired, you cannot use the account for any purpose other than to choose a new password, until you do choose one.

    1. If you do not know the initial random password, look in the server error log.

    2. Connect to the server as root using the password:

      shell> mysql -u root -p
      Enter password: (enter the random root password here)
      
    3. Choose a new password to replace the random password:

      mysql> ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'root-password';
      
  • If the root account exists but has no password, connect to the server as root using no password, then assign a password. This is the case if you initialized the data directory using mysqld --initialize-insecure.

    1. Connect to the server as root using no password:

      shell> mysql -u root --skip-password
      
    2. Assign a password:

      mysql> ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'root-password';
      

After assigning the root account a password, you must supply that password whenever you connect to the server using the account. For example, to connect to the server using the mysql client, use this command:

shell> mysql -u root -p
Enter password: (enter root password here)

To shut down the server with mysqladmin, use this command:

shell> mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
Enter password: (enter root password here)
Note

For additional information about setting passwords, see Section 6.2.14, “Assigning Account Passwords”. If you forget your root password after setting it, see Section B.4.3.2, “How to Reset the Root Password”.

To set up additional accounts, see Section 6.2.8, “Adding Accounts, Assigning Privileges, and Dropping Accounts”.

2.10.5 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically

This section discusses methods for starting and stopping the MySQL server.

Generally, you start the mysqld server in one of these ways:

systemd, the mysqld_safe and mysql.server scripts, Solaris SMF, and the macOS Startup Item (or MySQL Preference Pane) can be used to start the server manually, or automatically at system startup time. systemd, mysql.server, and the Startup Item also can be used to stop the server.

The following table shows which option groups the server and startup scripts read from option files.

Table 2.14 MySQL Startup Scripts and Supported Server Option Groups

Script Option Groups
mysqld [mysqld], [server], [mysqld-major_version]
mysqld_safe [mysqld], [server], [mysqld_safe]
mysql.server [mysqld], [mysql.server], [server]

[mysqld-major_version] means that groups with names like [mysqld-5.7] and [mysqld-8.0] are read by servers having versions 5.7.x, 8.0.x, and so forth. This feature can be used to specify options that can be read only by servers within a given release series.

For backward compatibility, mysql.server also reads the [mysql_server] group and mysqld_safe also reads the [safe_mysqld] group. To be current, you should update your option files to use the [mysql.server] and [mysqld_safe] groups instead.

For more information on MySQL configuration files and their structure and contents, see Section 4.2.2.2, “Using Option Files”.

2.11 Upgrading MySQL

This section describes the steps to upgrade a MySQL installation.

Upgrading is a common procedure, as you pick up bug fixes within the same MySQL release series or significant features between major MySQL releases. You perform this procedure first on some test systems to make sure everything works smoothly, and then on the production systems.

Note

In the following discussion, MySQL commands that must be run using a MySQL account with administrative privileges include -u root on the command line to specify the MySQL root user. Commands that require a password for root also include a -p option. Because -p is followed by no option value, such commands prompt for the password. Type the password when prompted and press Enter.

SQL statements can be executed using the mysql command-line client (connect as root to ensure that you have the necessary privileges).

2.11.1 Before You Begin

Review the information in this section before upgrading. Perform any recommended actions.

2.11.2 Upgrade Paths

  • Upgrade from MySQL 5.7 to 8.0 is supported. However, upgrade is only supported between General Availability (GA) releases. For MySQL 8.0, it is required that you upgrade from a MySQL 5.7 GA release (5.7.9 or higher). Upgrades from non-GA releases of MySQL 5.7 are not supported.

  • Upgrading to the latest release is recommended before upgrading to the next version. For example, upgrade to the latest MySQL 5.7 release before upgrading to MySQL 8.0.

  • Upgrade that skips versions is not supported. For example, upgrading directly from MySQL 5.6 to 8.0 is not supported.

  • Once a release series reaches General Availability (GA) status, upgrade within the release series (from one GA version to another GA version) is supported. For example, upgrading from MySQL 8.0.x to 8.0.y is supported. (Upgrade involving development-status non-GA releases is not supported.) Skipping a release is also supported. For example, upgrading from MySQL 8.0.x to 8.0.z is supported. MySQL 8.0.11 is the first GA status release within the MySQL 8.0 release series.

2.11.3 What the MySQL Upgrade Process Upgrades

Installing a new version of MySQL may require upgrading these parts of the existing installation:

  • The mysql system schema, which contains tables that store information required by the MySQL server as it runs (see Section 5.3, “The mysql System Schema”). mysql schema tables fall into two broad categories:

    • Data dictionary tables, which store database object metadata.

    • System tables (that is, the remaining non-data dictionary tables), which are used for other operational purposes.

  • Other schemas, some of which are built in and may be considered owned by the server, and others which are not:

    • The Performance Schema, INFORMATION_SCHEMA, and sys schema.

    • User schemas.

Two distinct version numbers are associated with parts of the installation that may require upgrading:

  • The data dictionary version. This applies to the data dictionary tables.

  • The server version, also known as the MySQL version. This applies to the system tables and objects in other schemas.

In both cases, the actual version applicable to the existing MySQL installation is stored in the data dictionary, and the current expected version is compiled into the new version of MySQL. When an actual version is lower than the current expected version, those parts of the installation associated with that version must be upgraded to the current version. If both versions indicate an upgrade is needed, the data dictionary upgrade must occur first.

As a reflection of the two distinct versions just mentioned, the upgrade occurs in two steps:

  • Step 1: Data dictionary upgrade.

    This step upgrades:

    • The data dictionary tables in the mysql schema. If the actual data dictionary version is lower than the current expected version, the server creates data dictionary tables with updated definitions, copies persisted metadata to the new tables, atomically replaces the old tables with the new ones, and reinitializes the data dictionary.

    • The Performance Schema and INFORMATION_SCHEMA.

  • Step 2: Server upgrade.

    This step comprises all other upgrade tasks. If the server version of the existing MySQL installation is lower than that of the new installed MySQL version, everything else must be upgraded:

    • The system tables in the mysql schema (the remaining non-data dictionary tables).

    • The sys schema.

    • User schemas.

The data dictionary upgrade (step 1) is the responsibility of the server, which performs this task as necessary at startup unless invoked with an option that prevents it from doing so. The option is --upgrade=NONE as of MySQL 8.0.16, --no-dd-upgrade prior to MySQL 8.0.16.

If the data dictionary is out of date but the server is prevented from upgrading it, the server will not run and exits with an error. For example:

[ERROR] [MY-013381] [Server] Server shutting down because upgrade is
required, yet prohibited by the command line option '--upgrade=NONE'.
[ERROR] [MY-010334] [Server] Failed to initialize DD Storage Engine
[ERROR] [MY-010020] [Server] Data Dictionary initialization failed.

Some changes to the responsibility for step 2 occurred in MySQL 8.0.16:

  • Prior to MySQL 8.0.16, mysql_upgrade upgrades the Performance Schema, the INFORMATION_SCHEMA, and the objects described in step 2. The DBA is expected to invoke mysql_upgrade manually after starting the server.

  • As of MySQL 8.0.16, the server performs all tasks previously handled by mysql_upgrade. Although upgrading remains a two-step operation, the server performs them both, resulting in a simpler process.

Depending on the version of MySQL to which you are upgrading, the instructions in In-Place Upgrade and Logical Upgrade indicate whether the server performs all upgrade tasks or whether you must also invoke mysql_upgrade after server startup.

Note

Because the server upgrades the Performance Schema, INFORMATION_SCHEMA, and the objects described in step 2 as of MySQL 8.0.16, mysql_upgrade is unneeded and is deprecated as of that version, and will be removed in a future MySQL version.

Most aspects of what occurs during step 2 are the same prior to and as of MySQL 8.0.16, although different command options may be needed to achieve a particular effect.

As of MySQL 8.0.16, the --upgrade server option controls whether and how the server performs an automatic upgrade at startup:

  • With no option or with --upgrade=AUTO, the server upgrades anything it determines to be out of date (steps 1 and 2).

  • With --upgrade=NONE, the server upgrades nothing (skips steps 1 and 2), but also exits with an error if the data dictionary must be upgraded. It is not possible to run the server with an out-of-date data dictionary; the server insists on either upgrading it or exiting.

  • With --upgrade=MINIMAL, the server upgrades the data dictionary, the Performance Schema, and the INFORMATION_SCHEMA, if necessary (step 1). Note that following an upgrade with this option, Group Replication cannot be started, because system tables on which the replication internals depend are not updated, and reduced functionality might also be apparent in other areas.

  • With --upgrade=FORCE, the server upgrades the data dictionary, the Performance Schema, and the INFORMATION_SCHEMA, if necessary (step 1), and forces an upgrade of everything else (step 2). Expect server startup to take longer with this option because the server checks all objects in all schemas.

FORCE is useful to force step 2 actions to be performed if the server thinks they are not necessary. One way that FORCE differs from AUTO is that with FORCE, the server re-creates system tables such as help tables or time zone tables if they are missing.

The following list shows upgrade commands prior to MySQL 8.0.16 and the equivalent commands for MySQL 8.0.16 and higher:

Prior to MySQL 8.0.16, certain mysql_upgrade options affect the actions it performs. The following table shows which server --upgrade option values to use as of MySQL 8.0.16 to achieve similar effects. (These are not necessarily exact equivalents because a given --upgrade option value may have additional effects.)

Additional notes about what occurs during upgrade step 2:

  • Step 2 installs the sys schema if it is not installed, and upgrades it to the current version otherwise. An error occurs if a sys schema exists but has no version view, on the assumption that its absence indicates a user-created schema:

    A sys schema exists with no sys.version view. If
    you have a user created sys schema, this must be renamed for the
    upgrade to succeed.
    

    To upgrade in this case, remove or rename the existing sys schema first. Then perform the upgrade procedure again. (It may be necessary to force step 2.)

    To prevent the sys schema check:

    • As of MySQL 8.0.16: Start the server with the --upgrade=NONE or --upgrade=MINIMAL option.

    • Prior to MySQL 8.0.16: Invoke mysql_upgrade with the --skip-sys-schema option.

  • Step 2 processes all tables in all user schemas as necessary. Table checking might take a long time to complete. Each table is locked and therefore unavailable to other sessions while it is being processed. Check and repair operations can be time-consuming, particularly for large tables. Table checking uses the FOR UPGRADE option of the CHECK TABLE statement. For details about what this option entails, see Section 13.7.3.2, “CHECK TABLE Syntax”.

    To prevent table checking:

    To force table checking:

    • As of MySQL 8.0.16: Start the server with the --upgrade=FORCE option.

    • Prior to MySQL 8.0.16: Invoke mysql_upgrade with the --force option.

  • Step 2 saves the MySQL version number in a file named mysql_upgrade_info in the data directory.

    To ignore the mysql_upgrade_info file and perform the check regardless:

    • As of MySQL 8.0.16: Start the server with the --upgrade=FORCE option.

    • Prior to MySQL 8.0.16: Invoke mysql_upgrade with the --force option.

    Note

    The mysql_upgrade_info file is deprecated and will be removed in a future MySQL version.

  • Step 2 marks all checked and repaired tables with the current MySQL version number. This ensures that the next time upgrade checking occurs with the same version of the server, it can be determined whether there is any need to check or repair a given table again.

  • Step 2 upgrades the system tables to ensure that they have the current structure. This is true whether the server or mysql_upgrade performs the step. With respect to the content of the help tables and time zone tables, mysql_upgrade does not load either type of table, whereas the server loads the help tables, but not the time zone tables. (That is, prior to MySQL 8.0.16, the server loads the help tables only at data directory initialization time. As of MySQL 8.0.16, it loads the help tables at initialization and upgrade time.) The procedure for loading time zone tables is platform dependent and requires decision making by the DBA, so it cannot be done automatically.

2.11.4 Changes in MySQL 8.0

Before upgrading to MySQL 8.0, review the changes described in this section to identify those that apply to your current MySQL installation and applications. Perform any recommended actions.

Changes marked as Incompatible change are incompatibilities with earlier versions of MySQL, and may require your attention before upgrading. Our aim is to avoid these changes, but occasionally they are necessary to correct problems that would be worse than an incompatibility between releases. If an upgrade issue applicable to your installation involves an incompatibility, follow the instructions given in the description.

Data Dictionary Changes

MySQL Server 8.0 incorporates a global data dictionary containing information about database objects in transactional tables. In previous MySQL series, dictionary data was stored in metadata files and nontransactional system tables. As a result, the upgrade procedure requires that you verify the upgrade readiness of your installation by checking specific prerequisites. For more information, see Section 2.11.5, “Preparing Your Installation for Upgrade”. A data dictionary-enabled server entails some general operational differences; see Section 14.7, “Data Dictionary Usage Differences”.

caching_sha2_password as the Preferred Authentication Plugin

The caching_sha2_password and sha256_password authentication plugins provide more secure password encryption than the mysql_native_password plugin, and caching_sha2_password provides better performance than sha256_password. Due to these superior security and performance characteristics of caching_sha2_password, it is as of MySQL 8.0 the preferred authentication plugin, and is also the default authentication plugin rather than mysql_native_password. This change affects both the server and the libmysqlclient client library:

  • For the server, the default value of the default_authentication_plugin system variable changes from mysql_native_password to caching_sha2_password.

    This change applies only to new accounts created after installing or upgrading to MySQL 8.0 or higher. For accounts already existing in an upgraded installation, their authentication plugin remains unchanged. Existing users who wish to switch to caching_sha2_password can do so using the ALTER USER statement:

    ALTER USER user
      IDENTIFIED WITH caching_sha2_password
      BY 'password';
    
  • The libmysqlclient library treats caching_sha2_password as the default authentication plugin rather than mysql_native_password.

The following sections discuss the implications of the more prominent role of caching_sha2_password:

caching_sha2_password Compatibility Issues and Solutions
Important

If your MySQL installation must serve pre-8.0 clients and you encounter compatibility issues after upgrading to MySQL 8.0 or higher, the simplest way to address those issues and restore pre-8.0 compatibility is to reconfigure the server to revert to the previous default authentication plugin (mysql_native_password). For example, use these lines in the server option file:

[mysqld]
default_authentication_plugin=mysql_native_password

That setting enables pre-8.0 clients to connect to 8.0 servers until such time as the clients and connectors in use at your installation are upgraded to know about caching_sha2_password. However, the setting should be viewed as temporary, not as a long term or permanent solution, because it causes new accounts created with the setting in effect to forego the improved authentication security provided by caching_sha2_password.

The use of caching_sha2_password offers more secure password hashing than mysql_native_password (and consequent improved client connection authentication). However, it also has compatibility implications that may affect existing MySQL installations:

  • Clients and connectors that have not been updated to know about caching_sha2_password may have trouble connecting to a MySQL 8.0 server configured with caching_sha2_password as the default authentication plugin, even to use accounts that do not authenticate with caching_sha2_password. This issue occurs because the server specifies the name of its default authentication plugin to clients. If a client or connector is based on a client/server protocol implementation that does not gracefully handle an unrecognized default authentication plugin, it may fail with an error such as one of these:

    Authentication plugin 'caching_sha2_password' is not supported
    
    Authentication plugin 'caching_sha2_password' cannot be loaded:
    dlopen(/usr/local/mysql/lib/plugin/caching_sha2_password.so, 2):
    image not found
    
    Warning: mysqli_connect(): The server requested authentication
    method unknown to the client [caching_sha2_password]
    

    For information about writing connectors to gracefully handle requests from the server for unknown default authentication plugins, see Authentication Plugin Connector-Writing Considerations.

  • Clients that use an account that authenticates with caching_sha2_password must use either a secure connection (made using TCP using TLS/SSL credentials, a Unix socket file, or shared memory), or an unencrypted connection that supports password exchange using an RSA key pair. This security requirement does not apply to mysql_native_passsword, so the switch to caching_sha2_password may require additional configuration (see Section 6.4.1.3, “Caching SHA-2 Pluggable Authentication”). However, client connections in MySQL 8.0 prefer use of TLS/SSL by default, so clients that already conform to that preference may need no additional configuration.

  • Clients and connectors that have not been updated to know about caching_sha2_password cannot connect to accounts that authenticate with caching_sha2_password because they do not recognize this plugin as valid. (This is a particular instance of how client/server authentication plugin compatibility requirements apply, as discussed at Authentication Plugin Client/Server Compatibility.) To work around this issue, relink clients against libmysqlclient from MySQL 8.0 or higher, or obtain an updated connector that recognizes caching_sha2_password.

  • Because caching_sha2_password is also now the default authentication plugin in the libmysqlclient client library, authentication requires an extra round trip in the client/server protocol for connections from MySQL 8.0 clients to accounts that use mysql_native_password (the previous default authentication plugin), unless the client program is invoked with a --default-auth=mysql_native_password option.

The libmysqlclient client library for pre-8.0 MySQL versions is able to connect to MySQL 8.0 servers (except for accounts that authenticate with caching_sha2_password). That means pre-8.0 clients based on libmysqlclient should also be able to connect. Examples:

  • Standard MySQL clients such as mysql and mysqladmin are libmysqlclient-based.

  • The DBD::mysql driver for Perl DBI is libmysqlclient-based.

  • MySQL Connector/Python has a C Extension module that is libmysqlclient-based. To use it, include the use_pure=False option at connect time.

When an existing MySQL 8.0 installation is upgraded to MySQL 8.0.4 or higher, some older libmysqlclient-based clients may automatically upgrade if they are dynamically linked, because they use the new client library installed by the upgrade. For example, if the DBD::mysql driver for Perl DBI uses dynamic linking, it can use the libmysqlclient in place after an upgrade to MySQL 8.0.4 or higher, with this result:

  • Prior to the upgrade, DBI scripts that use DBD::mysql can connect to a MySQL 8.0 server, except for accounts that authenticate with caching_sha2_password.

  • After the upgrade, the same scripts become able to use caching_sha2_password accounts as well.

However, the preceding results occur because libmysqlclient instances from MySQL 8.0 installations prior to 8.0.4 are binary compatible: They both use a shared library major version number of 21. For clients linked to libmysqlclient from MySQL 5.7 or older, they link to a shared library with a different version number that is not binary compatible. In this case, the client must be recompiled against libmysqlclient from 8.0.4 or higher for full compatibility with MySQL 8.0 servers and caching_sha2_password accounts.

MySQL Connector/J 5.1 through 8.0.8 is able to connect to MySQL 8.0 servers, except for accounts that authenticate with caching_sha2_password. (Connector/J 8.0.9 or higher is required to connect to caching_sha2_password accounts.)

Clients that use an implementation of the client/server protocol other than libmysqlclient may need to be upgraded to a newer version that understands the new authentication plugin. For example, in PHP, MySQL connectivity usually is based on mysqlnd, which currently does not know about caching_sha2_password. Until an updated version of mysqlnd is available, the way to enable PHP clients to connect to MySQL 8.0 is to reconfigure the server to revert to mysql_native_password as the default authentication plugin, as previously discussed.

If a client or connector supports an option to explicitly specify a default authentication plugin, use it to name a plugin other than caching_sha2_password. Examples:

  • Some MySQL clients support a --default-auth option. (Standard MySQL clients such as mysql and mysqladmin support this option but can successfully connect to 8.0 servers without it. However, other clients may support a similar option. If so, it is worth trying it.)

  • Programs that use the libmysqlclient C API can call the mysql_options() function with the MYSQL_DEFAULT_AUTH option.

  • MySQL Connector/Python scripts that use the native Python implementation of the client/server protocol can specify the auth_plugin connection option. (Alternatively, use the Connector/Python C Extension, which is able to connect to MySQL 8.0 servers without the need for auth_plugin.)

caching_sha2_password-Compatible Clients and Connectors

If a client or connector is available that has been updated to know about caching_sha2_password, using it is the best way to ensure compatibility when connecting to a MySQL 8.0 server configured with caching_sha2_password as the default authentication plugin.

These clients and connectors have been upgraded to support caching_sha2_password:

  • The libmysqlclient client library in MySQL 8.0 (8.0.4 or higher). Standard MySQL clients such as mysql and mysqladmin are libmysqlclient-based, so they are compatible as well.

  • The libmysqlclient client library in MySQL 5.7 (5.7.23 or higher). Standard MySQL clients such as mysql and mysqladmin are libmysqlclient-based, so they are compatible as well.

  • MySQL Connector/C++ 1.1.11 or higher or 8.0.7 or higher.

  • MySQL Connector/J 8.0.9 or higher.

  • MySQL Connector/NET 8.0.10 or higher (through the classic MySQL protocol).

  • MySQL Connector/Node.js 8.0.9 or higher.

  • PHP: the X DevAPI PHP extension (mysql_xdevapi) supports caching_sha2_password.

    PHP: the PDO_MySQL and ext/mysqli extensions do not support caching_sha2_password. In addition, when used with PHP versions before 7.1.16 and PHP 7.2 before 7.2.4, they fail to connect with default_authentication_plugin=caching_sha2_password even if caching_sha2_password is not used.

caching_sha2_password and the root Administrative Account

For upgrades to MySQL 8.0, the authentication plugin existing accounts remains unchanged, including the plugin for the 'root'@'localhost' administrative account.

For new MySQL 8.0 installations, when you initialize the data directory (using the instructions at Section 2.10.1, “Initializing the Data Directory”), the 'root'@'localhost' account is created, and that account uses caching_sha2_password by default. To connect to the server following data directory initialization, you must therefore use a client or connector that supports caching_sha2_password. If you can do this but prefer that the root account use mysql_native_password after installation, install MySQL and initialize the data directory as you normally would. Then connect to the server as root and use ALTER USER as follows to change the account authentication plugin and password:

ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost'
  IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password
  BY 'password';

If the client or connector that you use does not yet support caching_sha2_password, you can use a modified data directory-initialization procedure that associates the root account with mysql_native_password as soon as the account is created. To do so, use either of these techniques:

caching_sha2_password and Replication

In replication scenarios for which all servers have been upgraded to MySQL 8.0.4 or higher, slave/replica connections to master/primary servers can use accounts that authenticate with caching_sha2_password. For such connections, the same requirement applies as for other clients that use accounts that authenticate with caching_sha2_password: Use a secure connection or RSA-based password exchange.

To connect to a caching_sha2_password account for master/slave replication:

  • Use any of the following CHANGE MASTER TO options:

    MASTER_SSL = 1
    GET_MASTER_PUBLIC_KEY = 1
    MASTER_PUBLIC_KEY_PATH='path to RSA public key file'
    
  • Alternatively, you can use the RSA public key-related options if the required keys are supplied at server startup.

To connect to a caching_sha2_password account for Group Replication:

  • For MySQL built using OpenSSL, set any of the following system variables:

    SET GLOBAL group_replication_recovery_use_ssl = ON;
    SET GLOBAL group_replication_recovery_get_public_key = 1;
    SET GLOBAL group_replication_recovery_public_key_path = 'path to RSA public key file';
    
  • Alternatively, you can use the RSA public key-related options if the required keys are supplied at server startup.

Configuration Changes

  • Incompatible change: A MySQL storage engine is now responsible for providing its own partitioning handler, and the MySQL server no longer provides generic partitioning support. InnoDB and NDB are the only storage engines that provide a native partitioning handler that is supported in MySQL 8.0. A partitioned table using any other storage engine must be altered—either to convert it to InnoDB or NDB, or to remove its partitioning—before upgrading the server, else it cannot be used afterwards.

    For information about converting MyISAM tables to InnoDB, see Section 15.6.1.3, “Converting Tables from MyISAM to InnoDB”.

    A table creation statement that would result in a partitioned table using a storage engine without such support fails with an error (ER_CHECK_NOT_IMPLEMENTED) in MySQL 8.0. If you import databases from a dump file created in MySQL 5.7 (or earlier) using mysqldump into a MySQL 8.0 server, you must make sure that any statements creating partitioned tables do not also specify an unsupported storage engine, either by removing any references to partitioning, or by specifying the storage engine as InnoDB or allowing it to be set as InnoDB by default.

    Note

    The procedure given at Section 2.11.5, “Preparing Your Installation for Upgrade”, describes how to identify partitioned tables that must be altered before upgrading to MySQL 8.0.

    See Section 23.6.2, “Partitioning Limitations Relating to Storage Engines”, for further information.

  • Incompatible change: Several server error codes are not used and have been removed (for a list, see Features Removed in MySQL 8.0). Applications that test specifically for any of them should be updated.

  • Important change: The default character set has changed from latin1 to utf8mb4. These system variables are affected:

    As a result, the default character set and collation for new objects differ from previously unless an explicit character set and collation are specified. This includes databases and objects within them, such as tables, views, and stored programs. Assuming that the previous defaults were used, one way to preserve them is to start the server with these lines in the my.cnf file:

    [mysqld]
    character_set_server=latin1
    collation_server=latin1_swedish_ci
    

    In a replicated setting, when upgrading from MySQL 5.7 to 8.0, it is advisable to change the default character set back to the character set used in MySQL 5.7 before upgrading. After the upgrade is completed, the default character set can be changed to utf8mb4.

  • Incompatible change: As of MySQL 8.0.11, it is prohibited to start the server with a lower_case_table_names setting that is different from the setting used when the server was initialized. The restriction is necessary because collations used by various data dictionary table fields are based on the lower_case_table_names setting that was defined when the server was initialized, and restarting the server with a different setting would introduce inconsistencies with respect to how identifiers are ordered and compared.

Server Changes

  • In MySQL 8.0.11, several deprecated features related to account management have been removed, such as use of the GRANT statement to modify nonprivilege characteristics of user accounts, the NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER SQL mode, the PASSWORD() function, and the old_passwords system variable.

    Replication from MySQL 5.7 to 8.0 of statements that refer to these removed features can cause replication failure. Applications that use any of the removed features should be revised to avoid them and use alternatives when possible, as described in Features Removed in MySQL 8.0.

    To avoid a startup failure on MySQL 8.0, remove any instance of NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER from sql_mode system variable settings in MySQL option files.

    Loading a dump file that includes the NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER SQL mode in stored program definitions into a MySQL 8.0 server causes a failure. As of MySQL 5.7.24 and MySQL 8.0.13, mysqldump removes NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER from stored program definitions. Dump files created with an earlier version of mysqldump must be modified manually to remove instances of NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER.

  • In MySQL 8.0.11, these deprecated compatibility SQL modes were removed: DB2, MAXDB, MSSQL, MYSQL323, MYSQL40, ORACLE, POSTGRESQL, NO_FIELD_OPTIONS, NO_KEY_OPTIONS, NO_TABLE_OPTIONS. They can no longer be assigned to the sql_mode system variable or used as permitted values for the mysqldump --compatible option.

    Removal of MAXDB means that the TIMESTAMP data type for CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE is no longer treated as DATETIME.

    Replication from MySQL 5.7 to 8.0 of statements that refer to the removed SQL modes can cause replication failure. This includes replication of CREATE statements for stored programs (stored procedures and functions, triggers, and events) that are executed while the current sql_mode value includes any of the removed modes. Applications that use any of the removed modes should be revised to avoid them.

  • As of MySQL 8.0.3, spatial data types permit an SRID attribute, to explicitly indicate the spatial reference system (SRS) for values stored in the column. See Section 11.5.1, “Spatial Data Types”.

    A spatial column with an explicit SRID attribute is SRID-restricted: The column takes only values with that ID, and SPATIAL indexes on the column become subject to use by the optimizer. The optimizer ignores SPATIAL indexes on spatial columns with no SRID attribute. See Section 8.3.3, “SPATIAL Index Optimization”. If you want the optimizer to consider SPATIAL indexes on spatial columns that are not SRID-restricted, each such column should be modified:

    • Verify that all values within the column have the same SRID. To determine the SRIDs contained in a geometry column col_name, use the following query:

      SELECT DISTINCT ST_SRID(col_name) FROM tbl_name;
      

      If the query returns more than one row, the column contains a mix of SRIDs. In that case, modify its contents so all values have the same SRID.

    • Redefine the column to have an explicit SRID attribute.

    • Recreate the SPATIAL index.

  • Several spatial functions were removed in MySQL 8.0.0 due to a spatial function namespace change that implemented an ST_ prefix for functions that perform an exact operation, or an MBR prefix for functions that perform an operation based on minimum bounding rectangles. The use of removed spatial functions in generated column definitions could cause an upgrade failure. Before upgrading, run mysqlcheck --check-upgrade for removed spatial functions and replace any that you find with their ST_ or MBR named replacements. For a list of removed spatial functions, refer to Features Removed in MySQL 8.0.

  • The BACKUP_ADMIN privilege is automatically granted to users with the RELOAD privilege when performing an in-place upgrade to MySQL 8.0.3 or higher.

  • From MySQL 8.0.13, because of differences between row-based or mixed replication mode and statement-based replication mode in the way that temporary tables are handled, there are new restrictions on switching the binary logging format at runtime.

    • SET @@SESSION.binlog_format cannot be used if the session has any open temporary tables.

    • SET @@global.binlog_format and SET @@persist.binlog_format cannot be used if any replication channel has any open temporary tables. SET @@persist_only.binlog_format is allowed if replication channels have open temporary tables, because unlike PERSIST, PERSIST_ONLY does not modify the runtime global system variable value.

    • SET @@global.binlog_format and SET @@persist.binlog_format cannot be used if any replication channel applier is running. This is because the change only takes effect on a replication channel when its applier is restarted, at which time the replication channel might have open temporary tables. This behavior is more restrictive than before. SET @@persist_only.binlog_format is allowed if any replication channel applier is running.

InnoDB Changes

  • INFORMATION_SCHEMA views based on InnoDB system tables were replaced by internal system views on data dictionary tables. Affected InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA views were renamed:

    Table 2.15 Renamed InnoDB Information Schema Views

    Old Name New Name
    INNODB_SYS_COLUMNS INNODB_COLUMNS
    INNODB_SYS_DATAFILES INNODB_DATAFILES
    INNODB_SYS_FIELDS INNODB_FIELDS
    INNODB_SYS_FOREIGN INNODB_FOREIGN
    INNODB_SYS_FOREIGN_COLS INNODB_FOREIGN_COLS
    INNODB_SYS_INDEXES INNODB_INDEXES
    INNODB_SYS_TABLES INNODB_TABLES
    INNODB_SYS_TABLESPACES INNODB_TABLESPACES
    INNODB_SYS_TABLESTATS INNODB_TABLESTATS
    INNODB_SYS_VIRTUAL INNODB_VIRTUAL

    After upgrading to MySQL 8.0.3 or higher, update any scripts that reference previous InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA view names.

  • The zlib library version bundled with MySQL was raised from version 1.2.3 to version 1.2.11.

    The zlib compressBound() function in zlib 1.2.11 returns a slightly higher estimate of the buffer size required to compress a given length of bytes than it did in zlib version 1.2.3. The compressBound() function is called by InnoDB functions that determine the maximum row size permitted when creating compressed InnoDB tables or inserting rows into compressed InnoDB tables. As a result, CREATE TABLE ... ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED or INSERT operations with row sizes very close to the maximum row size that were successful in earlier releases could now fail.

    If you have compressed InnoDB tables with large rows, it is recommended that you test compressed table CREATE TABLE statements on a MySQL 8.0 test instance prior to upgrading.

  • With the introduction of the --innodb-directories feature, the location of file-per-table and general tablespace files created with an absolute path or in a location outside of the data directory should be added to the innodb_directories argument value. Otherwise, InnoDB is not able to locate these files during recovery. To view tablespace file locations, query the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES table:

    SELECT TABLESPACE_NAME, FILE_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES \G
    
  • Undo logs can no longer reside in the system tablespace. In MySQL 8.0, undo logs reside in two undo tablespaces by default. For more information, see Section 15.6.3.4, “Undo Tablespaces”.

    When upgrading from MySQL 5.7 to MySQL 8.0, any undo tablespaces that exist in the MySQL 5.7 instance are removed and replaced by two new default undo tablespaces. Default undo tablespaces are created in the location defined by the innodb_undo_directory variable. If the innodb_undo_directory variable is undefined, undo tablespaces are created in the data directory. Upgrade from MySQL 5.7 to MySQL 8.0 requires a slow shutdown which ensures that undo tablespaces in the MySQL 5.7 instance are empty, permitting them to be removed safely.

    When upgrading to MySQL 8.0.14 or later from an earlier MySQL 8.0 release, undo tablespaces that exist in the pre-upgrade instance as a result of an innodb_undo_tablespaces setting greater than 2 are treated as user-defined undo tablespaces, which can be deactivated and dropped using ALTER UNDO TABLESPACE and DROP UNDO TABLESPACE syntax, respectively, after upgrading. Upgrade within the MySQL 8.0 release series may not always require a slow shutdown which means that existing undo tablespaces could contain undo logs. Therefore, existing undo tablespaces are not removed by the upgrade process.

  • Incompatible change: As of MySQL 8.0.17, the CREATE TABLESPACE ... ADD DATAFILE clause does not permit circular directory references. For example, the circular directory reference (/../) in the following statement is not permitted:

    CREATE TABLESPACE ts1 ADD DATAFILE ts1.ibd 'any_directory/../ts1.ibd';
    

    An exception to the restriction exists on Linux, where a circular directory reference is permitted if the preceding directory is a symbolic link. For example, the data file path in the example above is permitted if any_directory is a symbolic link. (It is still permitted for data file paths to begin with '../'.)

    To avoid upgrade issues, remove any circular directory references from tablespace data file paths before upgrading to MySQL 8.0.17 or higher. To inspect tablespace paths, query the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.INNODB_DATAFILES table.

  • Due to a regression introduced in MySQL 8.0.14, in-place upgrade on a case sensitive file system from MySQL 5.7 or a MySQL 8.0 release prior to MySQL 8.0.14 to MySQL 8.0.16 failed for instances with partitioned tables and lower_case_table_names=1. The failure was caused by a case mismatch issue related to partitioned table file names. The fix that introduced the regression was reverted, which permits upgrades to MySQL 8.0.17 from MySQL 5.7 or MySQL 8.0 releases prior to MySQL 8.0.14 to function as normal. However, the regression is still present in the MySQL 8.0.14, 8.0.15, and 8.0.16 releases.

    In-place upgrade on a case sensitive file system from MySQL 8.0.14, 8.0.15, or 8.0.16 to MySQL 8.0.17 fails with the following error when starting the server after upgrading binaries or packages to MySQL 8.0.17 if partitioned tables are present and lower_case_table_names=1:

    Upgrading from server version version_number with 
    partitioned tables and lower_case_table_names == 1 on a case sensitive file 
    system may cause issues, and is therefore prohibited. To upgrade anyway, restart 
    the new server version with the command line option 'upgrade=FORCE'. When 
    upgrade is completed, please execute 'RENAME TABLE part_table_name 
    TO new_table_name; RENAME TABLE new_table_name 
    TO part_table_name;' for each of the partitioned tables. 
    Please see the documentation for further information.
    

    If you encounter this error when upgrading to MySQL 8.0.17, perform the following workaround:

    1. Restart the server with --upgrade=force to force the upgrade operation to proceed.

    2. Identify partitioned table file names with lowercase suffixes:

      mysql> SELECT FILE_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES WHERE FILE_NAME LIKE '%#p#%' OR FILE_NAME LIKE '%#sp#%';
    3. For each file identified, rename the associated table using a temporary name, then rename the table back to its original name.

      mysql> RENAME TABLE table_name TO temporary_table_name; 
      mysql> RENAME TABLE temporary_table_name TO table_name;
      
    4. Verify that there are no partitioned table file names with lowercase suffixes (an empty result set should be returned).

      mysql> SELECT FILE_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES WHERE FILE_NAME LIKE '%#p#%' OR FILE_NAME LIKE '%#sp#%';
      Empty set (0.00 sec)
      
    5. Run ANALYZE TABLE on each renamed table to update the optimizer statistics in the mysql.innodb_index_stats and mysql.innodb_table_stats tables.

    Because of the regression still present in the MySQL 8.0.14, 8.0.15, and 8.0.16 releases, importing partitioned tables from MySQL 8.0.14, 8.0.15, or 8.0.16 to MySQL 8.0.17 is not supported on case sensitive file systems where lower_case_table_names=1. Attempting to do so results in a Tablespace is missing for table error.

SQL Changes

  • Incompatible change: As of MySQL 8.0.13, the deprecated ASC or DESC qualifiers for GROUP BY clauses have been removed. Queries that previously relied on GROUP BY sorting may produce results that differ from previous MySQL versions. To produce a given sort order, provide an ORDER BY clause.

    Queries and stored program definitions from MySQL 8.0.12 or lower that use ASC or DESC qualifiers for GROUP BY clauses should be amended. Otherwise, upgrading to MySQL 8.0.13 or higher may fail, as may replicating to MySQL 8.0.13 or higher slave servers.

  • Some keywords may be reserved in MySQL 8.0 that were not reserved in MySQL 5.7. See Section 9.3, “Keywords and Reserved Words”. This can cause words previously used as identifiers to become illegal. To fix affected statements, use identifier quoting. See Section 9.2, “Schema Object Names”.

  • After upgrading, it is recommended that you test optimizer hints specified in application code to ensure that the hints are still required to achieve the desired optimization strategy. Optimizer enhancements can sometimes render certain optimizer hints unnecessary. In some cases, an unnecessary optimizer hint may even be counterproductive.

  • Incompatible change: In MySQL 5.7, specifying a FOREIGN KEY definition for an InnoDB table without a CONSTRAINT symbol clause, or specifying the CONSTRAINT keyword without a symbol, causes InnoDB to use a generated constraint name. That behavior changed in MySQL 8.0, with InnoDB using the FOREIGN KEY index_name value instead of a generated name. Because constraint names must be unique per schema (database), the change caused errors due to foreign key index names that were not unique per schema. To avoid such errors, the new constraint naming behavior has been reverted in MySQL 8.0.16, and InnoDB once again uses a generated constraint name.

    For consistency with InnoDB, NDB releases based on MySQL 8.0.16 or higher use a generated constraint name if the CONSTRAINT symbol clause is not specified, or the CONSTRAINT keyword is specified without a symbol. NDB releases based on MySQL 5.7 and earlier MySQL 8.0 releases used the FOREIGN KEY index_name value.

    The changes described above may introduce incompatibilities for applications that depend on the previous foreign key constraint naming behavior.

2.11.5 Preparing Your Installation for Upgrade

Before upgrading to the latest MySQL 8.0 release, ensure the upgrade readiness of your current MySQL 5.7 or MySQL 8.0 server instance by performing the preliminary checks described below. The upgrade process may fail otherwise.

The same checks and others can be performed using the MySQL Shell upgrade checker utility. For more information, see Upgrade Checker Utility.

Preliminary checks:

  1. The following issues must not be present:

    • There must be no tables that use obsolete data types or functions.

      In-place upgrade to MySQL 8.0 is not supported if tables contain old temporal columns in pre-5.6.4 format (TIME, DATETIME, and TIMESTAMP columns without support for fractional seconds precision). If your tables still use the old temporal column format, upgrade them before attempting an in-place upgrade to MySQL 8.0. For more information, see Server Changes.

    • There must be no orphan .frm files.

    • Triggers must not have a missing or empty definer or an invalid creation context (indicated by the character_set_client, collation_connection, Database Collation attributes displayed by SHOW TRIGGERS or the INFORMATION_SCHEMA TRIGGERS table).

    To check for these issues, execute this command:

    mysqlcheck -u root -p --all-databases --check-upgrade
    

    If mysqlcheck reports any errors, correct the issues.

  2. There must be no partitioned tables that use a storage engine that does not have native partitioning support. To identify such tables, execute this query:

    SELECT TABLE_SCHEMA, TABLE_NAME
    FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES
    WHERE ENGINE NOT IN ('innodb', 'ndbcluster')
    AND CREATE_OPTIONS LIKE '%partitioned%';
    

    Any table reported by the query must be altered to use InnoDB or be made nonpartitioned. To change a table storage engine to InnoDB, execute this statement:

    ALTER TABLE table_name ENGINE = INNODB;
    

    For information about converting MyISAM tables to InnoDB, see Section 15.6.1.3, “Converting Tables from MyISAM to InnoDB”.

    To make a partitioned table nonpartitioned, execute this statement:

    ALTER TABLE table_name REMOVE PARTITIONING;
    
  3. Some keywords may be reserved in MySQL 8.0 that were not reserved previously. See Section 9.3, “Keywords and Reserved Words”. This can cause words previously used as identifiers to become illegal. To fix affected statements, use identifier quoting. See Section 9.2, “Schema Object Names”.

  4. There must be no tables in the MySQL 5.7 mysql system database that have the same name as a table used by the MySQL 8.0 data dictionary. To identify tables with those names, execute this query:

    SELECT TABLE_SCHEMA, TABLE_NAME
    FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES
    WHERE LOWER(TABLE_SCHEMA) = 'mysql'
    and LOWER(TABLE_NAME) IN
    (
    'catalogs',
    'character_sets',
    'check_constraints',
    'collations',
    'column_statistics',
    'column_type_elements',
    'columns',
    'dd_properties',
    'events',
    'foreign_key_column_usage',
    'foreign_keys',
    'index_column_usage',
    'index_partitions',
    'index_stats',
    'indexes',
    'parameter_type_elements',
    'parameters',
    'resource_groups',
    'routines',
    'schemata',
    'st_spatial_reference_systems',
    'table_partition_values',
    'table_partitions',
    'table_stats',
    'tables',
    'tablespace_files',
    'tablespaces',
    'triggers',
    'view_routine_usage',
    'view_table_usage'
    );
    

    Any tables reported by the query must be renamed (use RENAME TABLE). This may also entail changes to applications that use the affected tables.

  5. There must be no tables that have foreign key constraint names longer than 64 characters. To identify tables with too-long constraint names, execute this query:

    SELECT TABLE_SCHEMA, TABLE_NAME
    FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES
    WHERE TABLE_NAME IN
      (SELECT LEFT(SUBSTR(ID,INSTR(ID,'/')+1),
                   INSTR(SUBSTR(ID,INSTR(ID,'/')+1),'_ibfk_')-1)
       FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.INNODB_SYS_FOREIGN
       WHERE LENGTH(SUBSTR(ID,INSTR(ID,'/')+1))>64);
    

    Any tables reported by the query must be altered to have constraint names no longer than 64 characters (use ALTER TABLE).

  6. The must be no obsolete SQL modes defined in your sql_mode system variable setting. Attempting to use an obsolete SQL mode will cause a startup failure on MySQL 8.0. Applications that use obsolete SQL modes should also be revised to avoid them. For information about SQL modes removed in MySQL 8.0, see Server Changes.

  7. There must be no tables or stored procedures with individual ENUM or SET column elements that exceed 255 characters or 1020 bytes in length. Prior to MySQL 8.0, the maximum combined length of ENUM or SET column elements was 64K. In MySQL 8.0, the maximum character length of an individual ENUM or SET column element is 255 characters, and the maximum byte length is 1020 bytes. (The 1020 byte limit supports multitibyte character sets). Before upgrading to MySQL 8.0, modify any ENUM or SET column elements that exceed the new limits. Failing to do so causes the upgrade to fail with an error.

  8. Before upgrading to MySQL 8.0.13 or higher, there must be no table partitions that reside in shared InnoDB tablespaces, which include the system tablespace and general tablespaces. Identify table partitions in shared tablespaces by querying INFORMATION_SCHEMA:

    If upgrading from MySQL 5.7, run this query:

    SELECT DISTINCT NAME, SPACE, SPACE_TYPE FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.INNODB_SYS_TABLES 
      WHERE NAME LIKE '%#P#%' AND SPACE_TYPE NOT LIKE 'Single';
    

    If upgrading from an earlier MySQL 8.0 release, run this query:

    SELECT DISTINCT NAME, SPACE, SPACE_TYPE FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.INNODB_TABLES 
      WHERE NAME LIKE '%#P#%' AND SPACE_TYPE NOT LIKE 'Single';
    

    Move table partitions from shared tablespaces to file-per-table tablespaces using ALTER TABLE ... REORGANIZE PARTITION:

    ALTER TABLE table_name REORGANIZE PARTITION partition_name 
      INTO (partition_definition TABLESPACE=innodb_file_per_table);
    
  9. There must be no queries and stored program definitions from MySQL 8.0.12 or lower that use ASC or DESC qualifiers for GROUP BY clauses. Otherwise, upgrading to MySQL 8.0.13 or higher may fail, as may replicating to MySQL 8.0.13 or higher slave servers. For additional details, see SQL Changes.

  10. Your MySQL 5.7 installation must not use features that are not supported by MySQL 8.0. Any changes here are necessarily installation specific, but the following example illustrates the kind of thing to look for:

    Some server startup options and system variables have been removed in MySQL 8.0. See Features Removed in MySQL 8.0, and Section 1.5, “Server and Status Variables and Options Added, Deprecated, or Removed in MySQL 8.0”. If you use any of these, an upgrade requires configuration changes.

    Example: Because the data dictionary provides information about database objects, the server no longer checks directory names in the data directory to find databases. Consequently, the --ignore-db-dir option is extraneous and has been removed. To handle this, remove any instances of --ignore-db-dir from your startup configuration. In addition, remove or move the named data directory subdirectories before upgrading to MySQL 8.0. (Alternatively, let the 8.0 server add those directories to the data dictionary as databases, then remove each of those databases using DROP DATABASE.)

2.11.6 Upgrading MySQL Binary or Package-based Installations on Unix/Linux

This section describes how to upgrade MySQL binary and package-based installations on Unix/Linux. In-place and logical upgrade methods are described.

In-Place Upgrade

An in-place upgrade involves shutting down the old MySQL server, replacing the old MySQL binaries or packages with the new ones, restarting MySQL on the existing data directory, and upgrading any remaining parts of the existing installation that require upgrading. For details about what may need upgrading, see Section 2.11.3, “What the MySQL Upgrade Process Upgrades”.

Note

If you are upgrading an installation originally produced by installing multiple RPM packages, upgrade all the packages, not just some. For example, if you previously installed the server and client RPMs, do not upgrade just the server RPM.

For some Linux platforms, MySQL installation from RPM or Debian packages includes systemd support for managing MySQL server startup and shutdown. On these platforms, mysqld_safe is not installed. In such cases, use systemd for server startup and shutdown instead of the methods used in the following instructions. See Section 2.5.9, “Managing MySQL Server with systemd”.

For upgrades to MySQL Cluster installations, see also MySQL Cluster Upgrade.

To perform an in-place upgrade:

  1. Review the information in Section 2.11.1, “Before You Begin”.

  2. Ensure the upgrade readiness of your installation by completing the preliminary checks in Section 2.11.5, “Preparing Your Installation for Upgrade”.

  3. If you use XA transactions with InnoDB, run XA RECOVER before upgrading to check for uncommitted XA transactions. If results are returned, either commit or rollback the XA transactions by issuing an XA COMMIT or XA ROLLBACK statement.

  4. If there are encrypted InnoDB tablespaces, rotate the keyring master key by executing this statement:

    ALTER INSTANCE ROTATE INNODB MASTER KEY;
    
  5. If you normally run your MySQL server configured with innodb_fast_shutdown set to 2 (cold shutdown), configure it to perform a fast or slow shutdown by executing either of these statements:

    SET GLOBAL innodb_fast_shutdown = 1; -- fast shutdown
    SET GLOBAL innodb_fast_shutdown = 0; -- slow shutdown
    

    With a fast or slow shutdown, InnoDB leaves its undo logs and data files in a state that can be dealt with in case of file format differences between releases.

  6. Shut down the old MySQL server. For example:

    mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
    
  7. Upgrade the MySQL binaries or packages. If upgrading a binary installation, unpack the new MySQL binary distribution package. See Obtain and Unpack the Distribution. For package-based installations, install the new packages.

  8. Start the MySQL 8.0 server, using the existing data directory. For example:

    mysqld_safe --user=mysql --datadir=/path/to/existing-datadir &
    

    If there are encrypted InnoDB tablespaces, use the --early-plugin-load option to load the keyring plugin.

    When you start the MySQL 8.0 server, it automatically detects whether data dictionary tables are present. If not, the server creates them in the data directory, populates them with metadata, and then proceeds with its normal startup sequence. During this process, the server upgrades metadata for all database objects, including databases, tablespaces, system and user tables, views, and stored programs (stored procedures and functions, triggers, and Event Scheduler events). The server also removes files that previously were used for metadata storage. For example, after upgrading from MySQL 5.7 to MySQL 8.0, you will notice that tables no longer have .frm files.

    If this step fails, the server reverts all changes to the data directory. In this case, you should remove all redo log files, start your MySQL 5.7 server on the same data directory, and fix the cause of any errors. Then perform another slow shutdown of the 5.7 server and start the MySQL 8.0 server to try again.

  9. In the previous step, the server upgrades the data dictionary as necessary. Now it is necessary to perform any remaining upgrade operations:

    • As of MySQL 8.0.16, the server will already have done so in the previous step: It makes any changes required in the mysql system schema between MySQL 5.7 and MySQL 8.0, so that you can take advantage of new privileges or capabilities. It also brings the Performance Schema, INFORMATION_SCHEMA, and sys schema up to date for MySQL 8.0, and examines all user schemas for incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL.

    • Prior to MySQL 8.0.16, the server upgrades only the data dictionary in the previous step. After the MySQL 8.0 server starts successfully, execute mysql_upgrade to perform the remaining upgrade tasks:

      mysql_upgrade -u root -p
      

      Then shut down and restart the MySQL server to ensure that any changes made to the system tables take effect. For example:

      mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
      mysqld_safe --user=mysql --datadir=/path/to/existing-datadir &
      

      The first time you start the MySQL 8.0 server (in an earlier step), you may notice messages in the error log regarding nonupgraded tables. If mysql_upgrade has been run successfully, there should be no such messages the second time you start the server.

Note

The upgrade process does not upgrade the contents of the time zone tables. For upgrade instructions, see Section 5.1.13, “MySQL Server Time Zone Support”.

If the upgrade process uses mysql_upgrade (that is, prior to MySQL 8.0.16), the process does not upgrade the contents of the help tables, either. For upgrade instructions in that case, see Section 5.1.14, “Server-Side Help Support”.

Logical Upgrade

A logical upgrade involves exporting SQL from the old MySQL instance using a backup or export utility such as mysqldump or mysqlpump, installing the new MySQL server, and applying the SQL to your new MySQL instance. For details about what may need upgrading, see Section 2.11.3, “What the MySQL Upgrade Process Upgrades”.

Note

For some Linux platforms, MySQL installation from RPM or Debian packages includes systemd support for managing MySQL server startup and shutdown. On these platforms, mysqld_safe is not installed. In such cases, use systemd for server startup and shutdown instead of the methods used in the following instructions. See Section 2.5.9, “Managing MySQL Server with systemd”.

Warning

Applying SQL extracted from a previous MySQL release to a new MySQL release may result in errors due to incompatibilities introduced by new, changed, deprecated, or removed features and capabilities. Consequently, SQL extracted from a previous MySQL release may require modification to enable a logical upgrade.

To identify incompatibilities before upgrading to the latest MySQL 8.0 release, perform the steps described in Section 2.11.5, “Preparing Your Installation for Upgrade”.

To perform a logical upgrade:

  1. Review the information in Section 2.11.1, “Before You Begin”.

  2. Export your existing data from the previous MySQL installation:

    mysqldump -u root -p
      --add-drop-table --routines --events
      --all-databases --force > data-for-upgrade.sql
    
    Note

    Use the --routines and --events options with mysqldump (as shown above) if your databases include stored programs. The --all-databases option includes all databases in the dump, including the mysql database that holds the system tables.

    Important

    If you have tables that contain generated columns, use the mysqldump utility provided with MySQL 5.7.9 or higher to create your dump files. The mysqldump utility provided in earlier releases uses incorrect syntax for generated column definitions (Bug #20769542). You can use the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS table to identify tables with generated columns.

  3. Shut down the old MySQL server. For example:

    mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
    
  4. Install MySQL 8.0. For installation instructions, see Chapter 2, Installing and Upgrading MySQL.

  5. Initialize a new data directory, as described in Section 2.10.1, “Initializing the Data Directory”. For example:

    mysqld --initialize --datadir=/path/to/8.0-datadir
    

    Copy the temporary 'root'@'localhost' password displayed to your screen or written to your error log for later use.

  6. Start the MySQL 8.0 server, using the new data directory. For example:

    mysqld_safe --user=mysql --datadir=/path/to/8.0-datadir &
    
  7. Reset the root password:

    shell> mysql -u root -p
    Enter password: ****  <- enter temporary root password
    
    mysql> ALTER USER USER() IDENTIFIED BY 'your new password';
    
  8. Load the previously created dump file into the new MySQL server. For example:

    mysql -u root -p --force < data-for-upgrade.sql
    
    Note

    It is not recommended to load a dump file when GTIDs are enabled on the server (gtid_mode=ON), if your dump file includes system tables. mysqldump issues DML instructions for the system tables which use the non-transactional MyISAM storage engine, and this combination is not permitted when GTIDs are enabled. Also be aware that loading a dump file from a server with GTIDs enabled, into another server with GTIDs enabled, causes different transaction identifiers to be generated.

  9. Perform any remaining upgrade operations:

    • In MySQL 8.0.16 and higher, shut down the server, then restart it with the --upgrade=FORCE option to perform the remaining upgrade tasks:

      mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
      mysqld_safe --user=mysql --datadir=/path/to/8.0-datadir --upgrade=FORCE &
      

      Upon restart with --upgrade=FORCE, the server makes any changes required in the mysql system schema between MySQL 5.7 and MySQL 8.0, so that you can take advantage of new privileges or capabilities. It also brings the Performance Schema, INFORMATION_SCHEMA, and sys schema up to date for MySQL 8.0, and examines all user schemas for incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL.

    • Prior to MySQL 8.0.16, execute mysql_upgrade to perform the remaining upgrade tasks:

      mysql_upgrade -u root -p
      

      Then shut down and restart the MySQL server to ensure that any changes made to the system tables take effect. For example:

      mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
      mysqld_safe --user=mysql --datadir=/path/to/8.0-datadir &
      
Note

The upgrade process does not upgrade the contents of the time zone tables. For upgrade instructions, see Section 5.1.13, “MySQL Server Time Zone Support”.

If the upgrade process uses mysql_upgrade (that is, prior to MySQL 8.0.16), the process does not upgrade the contents of the help tables, either. For upgrade instructions in that case, see Section 5.1.14, “Server-Side Help Support”.

Note

Loading a dump file that contains a MySQL 5.7 mysql schema re-creates two tables that are no longer used: event and proc. (The corresponding MySQL 8.0 tables are events and routines, both of which are data dictionary tables and are protected.) After you are satisfied that the upgrade was successful, you can remove the event and proc tables by executing these SQL statements:

DROP TABLE mysql.event;
DROP TABLE mysql.proc;

MySQL Cluster Upgrade

The information in this section is an adjunct to the in-place upgrade procedure described in In-Place Upgrade, for use if you are upgrading MySQL Cluster.

As of MySQL 8.0.16, a MySQL Cluster upgrade can be performed as a regular rolling upgrade, following the usual three ordered steps:

  1. Upgrade MGM nodes.

  2. Upgrade data nodes one at a time.

  3. Upgrade API nodes one at a time (including MySQL servers).

The way to upgrade each of the nodes remains almost the same as prior to MySQL 8.0.16 because there is a separation between upgrading the data dictionary and upgrading the system tables. There are two steps to upgrading each individual mysqld:

  1. Import the data dictionary.

    Start the new server with the --upgrade=MINIMAL option to upgrade the data dictionary but not the system tables. This is essentially the same as the pre-MySQL 8.0.16 action of starting the server and not invoking mysql_upgrade.

    The MySQL server must be connected to NDB for this phase to complete. If any NDB or NDBINFO tables exist, and the server cannot connect to the cluster, it exits with an error message:

    Failed to Populate DD tables.
    
  2. Upgrade the system tables.

    Prior to MySQL 8.0.16, the DBA invokes the mysql_upgrade client to upgrade the system tables. As of MySQL 8.0.16, the server performs this action: To upgrade the system tables, restart each individual mysqld without the --upgrade=MINIMAL option.

2.11.7 Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL Yum Repository

For supported Yum-based platforms (see Section 2.5.1, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL Yum Repository”, for a list), you can perform an in-place upgrade for MySQL (that is, replacing the old version and then running the new version using the old data files) with the MySQL Yum repository.

Notes

  1. Selecting a Target Series

    By default, the MySQL Yum repository updates MySQL to the latest version in the release series you have chosen during installation (see Selecting a Release Series for details), which means, for example, a 5.7.x installation will not be updated to a 8.0.x release automatically. To update to another release series, you need to first disable the subrepository for the series that has been selected (by default, or by yourself) and enable the subrepository for your target series. To do that, see the general instructions given in Selecting a Release Series. For upgrading from MySQL 5.7 to 8.0, perform the reverse of the steps illustrated in Selecting a Release Series, disabling the subrepository for the MySQL 5.7 series and enabling that for the MySQL 8.0 series.

    As a general rule, to upgrade from one release series to another, go to the next series rather than skipping a series. For example, if you are currently running MySQL 5.6 and wish to upgrade to 8.0, upgrade to MySQL 5.7 first before upgrading to 8.0.

    Important

    For important information about upgrading from MySQL 5.7 to 8.0, see Upgrading from MySQL 5.7 to 8.0.

  2. Upgrading MySQL

    Upgrade MySQL and its components by the following command, for platforms that are not dnf-enabled:

    sudo yum update mysql-server
    

    For platforms that are dnf-enabled:

    sudo dnf upgrade mysql-server
    

    Alternatively, you can update MySQL by telling Yum to update everything on your system, which might take considerably more time. For platforms that are not dnf-enabled:

    sudo yum update
    

    For platforms that are dnf-enabled:

    sudo dnf upgrade
    
  3. Restarting MySQL

    The MySQL server always restarts after an update by Yum. Prior to MySQL 8.0.16, run mysql_upgrade after the server restarts to check and possibly resolve any incompatibilities between the old data and the upgraded software. mysql_upgrade also performs other functions; for details, see Section 4.4.5, “mysql_upgrade — Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables”. As of MySQL 8.0.16, this step is not required, as the server performs all tasks previously handled by mysql_upgrade.

You can also update only a specific component. Use the following command to list all the installed packages for the MySQL components (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf):

sudo yum list installed | grep "^mysql"

After identifying the package name of the component of your choice, update the package with the following command, replacing package-name with the name of the package. For platforms that are not dnf-enabled:

sudo yum update package-name

For dnf-enabled platforms:

sudo dnf upgrade package-name

Upgrading the Shared Client Libraries

After updating MySQL using the Yum repository, applications compiled with older versions of the shared client libraries should continue to work.

If you recompile applications and dynamically link them with the updated libraries: As typical with new versions of shared libraries where there are differences or additions in symbol versioning between the newer and older libraries (for example, between the newer, standard 8.0 shared client libraries and some older—prior or variant—versions of the shared libraries shipped natively by the Linux distributions' software repositories, or from some other sources), any applications compiled using the updated, newer shared libraries will require those updated libraries on systems where the applications are deployed. And, as expected, if those libraries are not in place, the applications requiring the shared libraries will fail. So, be sure to deploy the packages for the shared libraries from MySQL on those systems. To do this, add the MySQL Yum repository to the systems (see Adding the MySQL Yum Repository) and install the latest shared libraries using the instructions given in Installing Additional MySQL Products and Components with Yum.

2.11.8 Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL APT Repository

On Debian and Ubuntu platforms, to perform an in-place upgrade of MySQL and its components, use the MySQL APT repository. See Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL APT Repository in A Quick Guide to Using the MySQL APT Repository.

2.11.9 Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL SLES Repository

On the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES) platform, to perform an in-place upgrade of MySQL and its components, use the MySQL SLES repository. See Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL SLES Repository in A Quick Guide to Using the MySQL SLES Repository.

2.11.10 Upgrading MySQL on Windows

There are two approaches for upgrading MySQL on Windows:

The approach you select depends on how the existing installation was performed. Before proceeding, review Section 2.11, “Upgrading MySQL” for additional information on upgrading MySQL that is not specific to Windows.

Note

Whichever approach you choose, always back up your current MySQL installation before performing an upgrade. See Section 7.2, “Database Backup Methods”.

Upgrades between non-GA releases (or from a non-GA release to a GA release) are not supported. Significant development changes take place in non-GA releases and you may encounter compatibility issues or problems starting the server.

Note

MySQL Installer does not support upgrades between Community releases and Commercial releases. If you require this type of upgrade, perform it using the ZIP archive approach.

Upgrading MySQL with MySQL Installer

Performing an upgrade with MySQL Installer is the best approach when the current server installation was performed with it and the upgrade is within the current release series. MySQL Installer does not support upgrades between release series, such as from 5.7 to 8.0, and it does not provide an upgrade indicator to prompt you to upgrade. For instructions on upgrading between release series, see Upgrading MySQL Using the Windows ZIP Distribution.

To perform an upgrade using MySQL Installer:

  1. Start MySQL Installer.

  2. From the dashboard, click Catalog to download the latest changes to the catalog. The installed server can be upgraded only if the dashboard displays an arrow next to the version number of the server.

  3. Click Upgrade. All products that have a newer version now appear in a list.

    Note

    MySQL Installer deselects the server upgrade option for milestone releases (Pre-Release) in the same release series. In addition, it displays a warning to indicate that the upgrade is not supported, identifies the risks of continuing, and provides a summary of the steps to perform an upgrade manually. You can reselect server upgrade and proceed at your own risk.

  4. Deselect all but the MySQL server product, unless you intend to upgrade other products at this time, and click Next.

  5. Click Execute to start the download. When the download finishes, click Next to begin the upgrade operation.

    Upgrades to MySQL 8.0.16 and higher may show an option to skip the upgrade check and process for system tables. For more information about this option, see Important server upgrade conditions.

  6. Configure the server.

Upgrading MySQL Using the Windows ZIP Distribution

To perform an upgrade using the Windows ZIP archive distribution:

  1. Download the latest Windows ZIP Archive distribution of MySQL from https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/.

  2. If the server is running, stop it. If the server is installed as a service, stop the service with the following command from the command prompt:

    C:\> SC STOP mysqld_service_name
    

    Alternatively, use NET STOP mysqld_service_name.

    If you are not running the MySQL server as a service, use mysqladmin to stop it. For example, before upgrading from MySQL 5.7 to 8.0, use mysqladmin from MySQL 5.7 as follows:

    C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\bin\mysqladmin" -u root shutdown
    
    Note

    If the MySQL root user account has a password, invoke mysqladmin with the -p option and enter the password when prompted.

  3. Extract the ZIP archive. You may either overwrite your existing MySQL installation (usually located at C:\mysql), or install it into a different directory, such as C:\mysql8. Overwriting the existing installation is recommended.

  4. Restart the server. For example, use the SC START mysqld_service_name or NET START mysqld_service_name command if you run MySQL as a service, or invoke mysqld directly otherwise.

  5. Prior to MySQL 8.0.16, run mysql_upgrade as Administrator to check your tables, attempt to repair them if necessary, and update your grant tables if they have changed so that you can take advantage of any new capabilities. See Section 4.4.5, “mysql_upgrade — Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables”. As of MySQL 8.0.16, this step is not required, as the server performs all tasks previously handled by mysql_upgrade.

  6. If you encounter errors, see Section 2.3.5, “Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation”.

2.11.11 Upgrading a Docker Installation of MySQL

To upgrade a Docker installation of MySQL, refer to Upgrading a MySQL Server Container.

2.11.12 Upgrade Troubleshooting

  • A schema mismatch in a MySQL 5.7 instance between the .frm file of a table and the InnoDB data dictionary can cause an upgrade to MySQL 8.0 to fail. Such mismatches may be due to .frm file corruption. To address this issue, dump and restore affected tables before attempting the upgrade again.

  • If problems occur, such as that the new